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A few individuals no doubt found following the nomadic humans and eating their trash easier than chasing uncooperative herbivores, especially if the humans appreciated the service and started offering treats to stick around.
Nonetheless, DNA shows that all modern dogs are descended from a single pack in Mesopotamia right around the Neolithic Revolution 12KYA. The earlier experiments did not leave surviving bloodlines, so by the rules of anthropology dogs were "domesticated" at that point.
After more than 10K generations of selective breeding, we have turned dogs into a distinct subspecies, Canis lupus familiaris. In addition to becoming much more gregarious with a much weaker alpha instinct, therefore comfortable in a huge multi-species pack with a non-canine leader, they have adapted to a scavenger's diet, with slightly different-shaped teeth and a smaller brain requiring less protein for maintenance.
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As was brought up on the boards, there is considerable evidence for full or partial domestication of wolves at several times in the past. Canids are unique among the carnivorans for eating all of their prey, including the intestines and their contents, to maintain a bacterial culture in their extremely short guts. They even happily scavenge the leftovers from other predators' kills--this is why your dog goes out in the yard and eats all the feces he can find.
This gives wolves a stronger predilection for scavenging than many other predators. They would have been attracted to our middens, even in the Paleolithic Era when they only contained a few days' garbage.
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I thought you might enjoy this article on dog domestication from circa 29,500 BC:
Last time I was in Utah was 1975 on my next-to-last motorcycle. Zion, Bryce Canyon, Cedar Breaks, Arches. Riding through Arches was like being on the Coyote and Roadrunner cartoon set!
It seems we think alike along the linguistics forum. Let me know the next time you're out to Utah, and we could do lunch.