thank you. Interesting how this life can reach forward in time. I used to work in a coalmine 1km down and there were imprints of fern and the like preserved in the coal seams. In the western US there is petrified wood. A perfect analogy to my " empty past" sphere of the "time-dependant" universe -- are the burned, hollowed-out trees that are alive and standing. And in the ESM model, even with our ancestors gone, we, who are the universe's way to know itself, living in the membrane, are carrying on in the expansion, cells combining, dividing into the future. Hollow Sequoias are standing, protected by thick and light bark, and because they can not fall over easily past a certain point, since they are really lighter living pipes having green leaves, but open to the sky above. Some have a diameter of ~ 10 meters. All near Yosemite National Park. re: Wollemia, sad comment on human nature that they have to live in cages. Same story with the Big trees in california, the US Army had to station the cavalry there to protect them from the lumberjack-[asses]. One of the fallen half hollow tree was used as a stable, easy with a 4 meter cavity inside. still there, left from the 18 hundreds. thousands. Glad that the universe, even if it has a hollow, hollowed past, as ESM predicts, is safe from us. I find it arrogant that many of the science fiction stories seem to imply that we will export our violent inclination into the cosmos. never watched one of them.