Ancient Dikes, Dams and Reservoirs of the Kalahari Region The Kalahari Region of Africa, and its vicinity, is modernly a desert with minimal animal husbandry, and agriculture primarily in the Orange River valley. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalahari_Desert Searches of the region via GoogleEarth reveal an ancient, extensive agricultural complex involving thousands of dikes, dams and reservoirs throughout the region extending several hundred kilometers north/south, as well as east/west, centered around the Kalahari. The area is well-known for what are called ‘pans’ or ‘floors’, being very flat areas. It appears that these are the remains of former extensive agricultural fields. For example, the Great Floor (Groot-Vloer in Dutch-Derived Afrikaans) shows the following views: https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9193231,20.4933112,422m/data=!3m1!1e3 dike with breach https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9217166,20.5103801,844m/data=!3m1!1e3 extensive ag-contouring on the floor – each contourvseparattion is about the width of a road. Scattered throughout that floor, and elsewhere in the region, are numerous dried water-troughs, such as this: https://www.google.com/maps/@-30.0053443,20.493229,227m/data=!3m1!1e3 Another such breached-dike lies just to the east of Highway R-27 that crosses that pan. To its east are numerous abandoned fields. https://www.google.com/maps/@-30.0622829,20.6691658,2536m/data=!3m1!1e3 https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9814929,20.696959,454m/data=!3m1!1e3 dikes and field contouring One will note that modern animal-husbandry operations exist in the area, but the fields are barely productive for grazing. The old straight-line roads are now heavily eroded and overgrown, and in most areas buried, though this one is on higher ground parallel to the neighboring field. https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9656284,20.6282408,227m/data=!3m1!1e3 In the neighboring pan that the Dutch settlers named the Crazy Pan (Verneuk Pan), one encounters a unique style of farming contouring: https://www.google.com/maps/@-30.002613,21.1039536,908m/data=!3m1!1e3 To the east is the start of a very long dike that runs straight across that pan, then turns south towards the spiral-pattern contouring. https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9478668,21.2236688,455m/data=!3m1!1e3 Jog in the dike. https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9514012,21.2086663,910m/data=!3m1!1e3 Portions of Dike erased. https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9606493,21.171086,227m/data=!3m1!1e3 Dike continues: https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9636903,21.1583173,228m/data=!3m1!1e3 Dike continues https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9755493,21.1115711,228m/data=!3m1!1e3 Dike turns south https://www.google.com/maps/@-30.0178329,21.1051813,227m/data=!3m1!1e3 Close-up of Crazy Contour https://www.google.com/maps/@-30.01...0aHv61KCGuJ4Oj_2uZD1A=w203-h152!7i2560!8i1925 Reported Ground-Level Photo of Crazy Contour (this appears more recent?) These types of contouring exist throughout these pans and side-valleys that empty into the pans, as for example here. https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.4576796,20.1628942,423m/data=!3m1!1e3 Likewise, there are thousands of individual dikes in the side-valleys emptying into the pans that are silted-over, or breached, and clearly not in use. https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.9525214,20.6452866,454m/data=!3m1!1e3 https://www.google.com/maps/@-29.3726709,20.1078741,1696m/data=!3m1!1e3 Several Hundred Kilometers to the North, away from those pans above of South Africa, in the land of Namibia, we find the same. https://www.google.com/maps/@-26.0042126,18.6762441,227m/data=!3m1!1e3 https://www.google.com/maps/@-26.3797789,19.3011143,455m/data=!3m1!1e3 Contour Farming with breached dike https://www.google.com/maps/@-26.3256738,18.8014928,398m/data=!3m1!1e3 breached diked with contour farming. https://www.google.com/maps/@-26.3493676,18.781828,398m/data=!3m1!1e3 non-breached dike at head of pan. It appears that many, if not most or all, of the pans of the Kalahari are artificially produced as former diked fields that have since silted-in, dried-up, and become dry flat pans. This brief report is to show that there once existed an extensive agricultural complex surrounding the pans of the Kalahari region. This ties in to the report of the extensive Highway system further north and east that supported that former agricultural region. This appears to be quite ancient, as the last time this area was ‘wet’ to support agriculture was prior to the rise of the Egyptian dynasties, circa 10,000 years B.C., though there is evidence of repair and modification of the dikes, etc. that might indicate that agriculture continued long after it started getting drier, but before it became as dry as modernly. The question is, how old are these dikes, reservoirs, and field-contouring systems? I have developed GoogleEarth links to about 1,000 such view of dikes and reservoirs throughout the region, if anyone is interested.