It would be a cost to the government IFF the company were to go bankrupt, but only then would a single dollar leave the US treasury. Even then that dollar would NOT go to the power company, but to the lender. What the loan guaranteed does is lower the power company´s borrowing costs and that lowers the electric bills the customers must pay.* SUMMARY: There is zero possibility, under even very improbable circumstances, that the US will or is giving dollars (subsidizing) the power company. Your claim with no evidence, is simply FALSE. It is OK to support Futilitist, but don´t adopt his policies - make unsupported false claims. * I don´t remember the break down of the bill for nuclear generated power, but am sure it is at least 90% is for the repayment of the borrowed capital. Probably ~5% for salaries and 3% return to the stock holders as dividends and 2% the cost of the uranium fuel - just a quick guess. So anything that helps reduce the cost of the capital is a huge benefit to the customers. In a few years, when highly enriched U235 from old bombs, is no longer available to simply blend in with the lower enriched uranium, then the fuel cost fraction will rise as enrichment ("separation units") is expensive. The number of separation units to enrich from 19 to 20% is much greater than the number of separation units required to enrich from 1 to 2%. Thus, even with disarmament of nuclear weapons U235 availble, the natural uranium is stll enriched and then the old bomb matterial "tops off" to the required enrichment level.