Cannabis strength soars over past half century:

Discussion in 'General Science & Technology' started by paddoboy, Nov 16, 2020.

  1. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-cannabis-strength-soars-century.html

    New research shows that over the past 50 years street cannabis across the world has become substantially stronger carrying an increased risk of harm.

    The team behind the study from the Addiction and Mental Health Group at the University of Bath, synthesized data from over 80,000 cannabis samples tested in the past 50 years from street samples collected in the USA, UK, Netherlands, France, Denmark, Italy and New Zealand. Their findings are published in the journal Addiction and the research was funded by the Society for the Study of Addiction.

    The researchers investigated how concentrations of THC (the intoxicating component of cannabis responsible for giving users a 'high') had changed over time in different types of cannabis. In herbal cannabis, they found that THC concentrations increased by 14% from 1970 to 2017. This was primarily due to a rising market share of stronger varieties such as sinsemilla relative to traditional herbal cannabis which contains seeds and less THC.

    The team have previously found consistent evidence that frequent use of cannabis with higher levels of THC carries an increased risk of problems such as addiction and psychotic disorders.

    more at link.....

    the paper:

    Changes in delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) concentrations in cannabis over time: systematic review and meta‐analysis:

    Abstract
    Background and aims
    Cannabis products with high delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations carry an increased risk of addiction and mental health disorders, while it has been suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) may moderate the effects of THC. This study aimed to systematically review and meta‐analyse changes in THC and CBD concentrations in cannabis over time (PROSPERO registration: CRD42019130055).

    Design
    Embase, MEDLINE® and Epub Ahead of Print, In‐Process and Other Non‐Indexed Citations and Daily, Global Health, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched from inception to 27/03/2019 for observational studies reporting changes in mean THC and/or CBD concentration in cannabis over at least three annual time points. Searches and extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers. Random effects meta‐regression models estimated annual changes in THC and CBD for each product within each study; these estimates were pooled across studies in random effects models.

    Results
    We identified 12 eligible studies from the USA, UK, Netherlands, France, Denmark, Italy and New Zealand. For all herbal cannabis, THC concentrations increased by 0.29% each year (95% CI: 0.11, 0.47), P < 0.001 based on 66 747 cannabis samples from eight studies, 1970–2017. For cannabis resin, THC concentrations increased by 0.57% each year (95% CI: 0.10, 1.03), P = 0.017 based on 17 371 samples from eight studies, 1975–2017. There was no evidence for changes in CBD in herbal cannabis [−0.01% (95% CI: −0.02, 0.01), P = 0.280; 49 434 samples from five studies, 1995–2017] or cannabis resin [0.03% (95% CI: −0.11, 0.18), P = 0.651; 11 382 samples from six studies, 1992–2017]. Risk of bias was low apart from non‐random sampling in most studies. There was evidence of moderate to substantial heterogeneity.

    Conclusions
    Concentrations of delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in international cannabis markets increased from 1970 to 2017 while cannabidiol (CBD) remained stable. Increases in THC were greater in cannabis resin than herbal cannabis. Rising THC in herbal cannabis was attributable to an increased market share of high‐THC sinsemilla relative to low‐THC traditional herbal cannabis.
    more........
     
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  3. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    My comments...Obviously and logically the medical use of cannabis is helpful and required in many cases.

    On the recreational use I remain ignorant...have never used it, or desired it, or any other drug for that matter, other then the socially acceptable alcohol, tea and coffee...

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    Oh and Yaqona, now only on rare occasions.
     
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  5. dumbest man on earth Real Eyes Realize Real Lies Valued Senior Member

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  7. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    What is "yaqona" I hear someone ask? The more common name is kava, a soporific drink I once readily partook in in Fiji, as part of their culture, heritage and convention.
    I still partake in its refreshing qualities although on rarer occasions and generally in relation to Fijian events and conventions in Sydney.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kava
    methysticum: Latin 'pepper' and Latinized Greek 'intoxicating') is a crop of the Pacific Islands.[1] The name kava is from Tongan and Marquesan, meaning 'bitter';[1] other names for kava include ʻawa (Hawaiʻi),[2] ʻava (Samoa),[3] yaqona (Fiji),[4] sakau (Pohnpei),[5] seka (Kosrae),[6] and malok or malogu (parts of Vanuatu).[7] Kava is consumed for its sedating effects throughout the Pacific Ocean cultures of Polynesia, including Hawaii, Vanuatu, Melanesia, and some parts of Micronesia such as Palau. To a lesser extent, it is consumed in nations where it is exported as an herbal medicine.

    The root of the plant is used to produce a drink with sedative, anesthetic, and euphoriant properties. Its active ingredients are called kavalactones.[8] A systematic review done by the British nonprofit Cochrane concluded it was likely to be more effective than placebo at treating short-term anxiety.[9]

    Moderate consumption of kava in its traditional form, i.e., as a water-based suspension of kava roots, has been deemed as presenting an "acceptably low level of health risk" by the World Health Organization.[10] However, consumption of kava extracts produced with organic solvents, or excessive amounts of poor-quality kava products, may be linked to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes, including potential liver injury.

    I have only ever drunk it as highlighted in red. A few years ago some well intended missionary from Fiji, introduced kava to an outback indigenous population, for the intended purpose of weaning them of alcoholic abuse. This attempt failed miserably, as Vodka and other spirits were mixed with the kava for a 'kick".
    It was then subsequently banned for a period, but that has since been revised.
     
  8. iceaura Valued Senior Member

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    A standard consequence of making a drug illegal - coca leaves, opium poppy sap, psylocibin mushrooms, all went through a process of refinement and concentration once banned. It justifies the price and reduces transport costs.
    Hashish is very old - stronger than hashish?
     
  9. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    We have had a couple of deaths at rock concerts over the last few years due to illegal drugs, not particularly cannibis, but other more volatile stuff, and on occasions deadly mixtures of different drugs.
     
  10. Michael 345 New year. PRESENT is 71 years old Valued Senior Member

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    Sometimes it is the invisible component which kills the user of illegal drugs

    STUPIDITY

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  11. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    Just a few photos of the significance of Yaqona [kava] in Fijian culture......

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    and Prince Harry...................

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    and more relaxing moments......................

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  12. Michael 345 New year. PRESENT is 71 years old Valued Senior Member

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    I understand in excess causes some skin problems

    From memory dryness and flaking

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  13. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    You understand correctly Mick, and it is called kanikani. But really, you would need to be drinking it in 4 to 5 hour sessions, everyday for a fortnight or more.
    When I was younger and mixing it with the locals where my Wife is from, I started to get it on the forearms and feet.

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    Similar to light peeling of the skin after getting burnt. But two or three days off it and everything returns to normal.
    I have my own Tanoa [mixing bowl] and 6 bilos [drinking cups] although when drinking with friends, generally [outside covid 19] one cup is used as a community cup, and another for pouring. The exception being if any Tui was present...Tui being a Fijian chief. They have their own bilo.
     
  14. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    Even old Liz had to partake [it is not polite to refuse] in at least one bilo ni yaqona. She though like the Tui, would have her personal bilo...

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