One of humanity's ultimate questions is "How did the universe come into existence?" Since energy is one of the most fundamental physical quantities in physics, and particles and the like can be created from this energy, this question is related to the question "How did energy come into existence?" Cosmology can be largely divided into a model in which energy has continued to exist and a model in which energy is also created. Each model has its strengths and weaknesses, but in models that assume that some energy existed before our universe was born, "How did that energy come about?" The question still exists. In order to explain the source of energy in our universe, there have been models that claim the birth of the universe from nothing, or a Zero Energy Universe. However, it lacks a specific mechanism for how beings were born out of nothing. Some models presuppose an Inflaton Field-like existence or are depicted in very poor condition. *The nothingness referred to here is not a complete nothingness, but a state of zero energy. I would like to suggest a solution to this ultimate problem. Let's look at the characteristics of gravitational potential energy first, and explain the mechanism of birth from nothing. 1. Changes in the range of gravitational interactions over time Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! In Figure 1, if the mass or energy within the radius R_1 interacted gravitationally at t_1 (an arbitrary early time), the mass or energy within the radius R_2 will interact gravitationally at a later time t_2. As the universe ages, the mass or energy involved in gravitational interactions changes, resulting in changes in the energy composition of the universe. In the case of a uniform distribution, the total energy E_T of the system is E_T= Σmc^2 + Σ-Gmm/r =Mc^2 - (3/5)GM^2/R Since there is an attractive component (Mass energy) and a repulsive component (Gravitational potential energy or Gravitational self-energy), it contains elements that can explain the accelerated expansion and decelerated expansion of the universe. U/E = {-(3/5)GM^2/R }/Mc^2 = -(4πGρ/5c^2)R^2 = -kR^2 In the case of a uniform distribution, comparing the magnitudes of mass energy and gravitational potential energy, it is in the form of -kR^2. That is, over time, it is possible for negative gravitational potential energy values to become greater than positive mass energy values. 2. The inflection point at which the magnitudes of mass energy and gravitational potential energy are equal Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! The inflection point is the transition from decelerated expansion to accelerated expansion. If R < R_gs , then the positive energy is greater than the negative gravitational potential energy, so the mass distribution is dominated by attractive force and is decelerating. If R > R_gs, then the negative gravitational potential energy is greater than the positive energy, so the mass distribution is dominated by the repulsive (anti-gravity) force and accelerated expansion. So, if we connect R_gs with the birth of the universe, we have the potential to create the universe out of nothing, even the expansion of the universe. 3. Birth and Expansion of the Universe from the Uncertainty Principle 3.1 The Uncertainty Principle - Inflating in Planck time ΔxΔp≥hbar/2 ΔtΔE≥hbar/2 During Planck time, fluctuations in energy ΔE≥hbar/2Δt =(1/2)m_pc^2 The magnitude of the energy entering the accelerating expansion in Planck time is (5/6)m_pc^2. Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! It means, According to the uncertainty principle, it is possible to change (or create) more than (1/2)m_pc^2 energy during the Planck time, If an energy change above (5/6)m_pc^2 that is slightly larger than the minimum value occurs, the total energy of the energy distribution reaches negative energy, i.e., the negative mass state, within the time Δt where quantum fluctuations can exist. However, since there is a repulsive gravitational effect between negative masses, the corresponding mass distribution expands instead of contracting.(Stated another way, it expands because the repulsive force due to the negative gravitational self-energy is greater than the attractive force due to the positive energy (mass) distribution.) Thus, the quantum fluctuations generated by the uncertainty principle cannot return to nothing, but can expand and create the present universe. 3.2. The magnitude at which the minimum energy generated by the uncertainty principle equals the minimum energy required for accelerated expansion In the above analysis, the minimum energy of quantum fluctuation possible during Planck time is ΔE≥(1/2)m_pc^2, and the minimum energy fluctuation for which expansion after birth can occur is ΔE≥(5/6)m_pc^2. Since (5/6)m_pc^2 is greater than (1/2)m_pc^2, the birth and coming into existence of the universe in Planck time is a probabilistic event. For those unsatisfied with probabilistic event, consider the case where the birth of the universe was an inevitable event. Letting Δt=kt_p, and doing some calculations, we get the k=(3/5)^(1/2) Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! To summarize, If Δt ≤ ((3/5)^(1/2))t_p, then ΔE ≥ ((5/12)^(1/2))m_pc^2 is possible. And, the minimum magnitude at which the energy distribution reaches a negative energy state by gravitational interaction within Δt is ΔE=((5/12)^(1/2))m_pc^2. Thus, when Δt < ((3/5)^(1/2))t_p, a state is reached in which the total energy is negative within Δt. In other words, when quantum fluctuation occur where Δt is smaller than (3/5)^(1/2)t_p = 0.77t_p, the corresponding mass distribution reaches a state in which negative gravitational potential energy exceeds positive mass energy within Δt. Therefore, it can expand without disappearing. In this case, the situation in which the universe expands after birth becomes an inevitable event. [Abstract] There was a model claiming the birth of the universe from nothing, but the specific mechanism for the birth and expansion of the universe was very poor. According to the energy-time uncertainty principle, during Δt, an energy fluctuation of ΔE is possible, but this energy fluctuation should have reverted back to nothing. By the way, there is also a gravitational interaction during the time of Δt, and if the negative gravitational self-energy exceeds the positive mass-energy during this Δt, the total energy of the corresponding mass distribution becomes negative energy, that is, the negative mass state. Because there is a repulsive gravitational effect between negative masses, this mass distribution expands. Thus, it is possible to create an expansion that does not go back to nothing. Calculations show that if the quantum fluctuation occur for a time less than Δt = ((3/10)^(1/2))t_p ~ 0.77t_p, then an energy fluctuation of ΔE > ((5/6}^(1/2))m_pc^2 ~ 0.65m_pc^2 must occur. But in this case, because of the negative gravitational self-energy, ΔE will enter the negative energy (mass) state before the time of Δt. Because there is a repulsive gravitational effect between negative masses, ΔE cannot contract, but expands. Thus, the universe does not return to nothing, but can exist. Gravitational Potential Energy Model provides a means of distinguishing whether the existence of the present universe is an inevitable event or an event with a very low probability. And, it presents a new model for the process of inflation, the accelerating expansion of the early universe. This mechanism also provides an explanation for why the early universe started out in a high dense state. Additionally, when the negative gravitational potential energy exceeds the positive mass energy, it can produce an accelerated expansion of the universe. Through this mechanism, inflation, which is the accelerated expansion of the early universe, and dark energy, which is the cause of the accelerated expansion of the recent universe, can be explained at the same time. # The Birth Mechanism of the Universe from Nothing and New Inflation Mechanism https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371951438 # Dark Energy is Gravitational Potential Energy or Energy of the Gravitational Field https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360096238

Key point is Calculations show that if the quantum fluctuation occur for a time less than Δt = 0.77t_p, then an energy fluctuation of ΔE > 0.65m_pc^2 must occur. But in this case, because of the negative gravitational self-energy, ΔE will enter the negative energy (mass) state before the time of Δt. Because there is a repulsive gravitational effect between negative masses, ΔE cannot contract, but expands. Thus, the universe does not return to nothing, but can exist.

A couple of questions about your starting premises: Let's start with this gravitational potential energy. How can there be any gravity where mass does not yet exist? How can it be potential energy if there is no distance over which a potential can occur? If your primary mechanism for expansion is gravitational, then it follows that any such expansion can only occur at c or slower - which is far, far slower than our current understanding seems to indicate. It sounds like your idea does not address the birth of the universe so much as it addresses the inflationary stage immediately afterward. Which isn't really any better than what we already have.

I also have a question. Why do you say that gravitational potential energy is repulsive? When two masses attract each other gravitationally, the gravitational potential energy of the two-mass system is U=-GMm/r. The value of U is negative*, but the relevant conservative force is just the regular attractive force of gravity. --- * Notes: an arbitary choice is made here to define $U(r=\infty)=0$. The physics would no different if we defined U=-Gmm/r + 27.3 (or any other constant). A negative potential energy value doesn't mean a repulsive force.

That explanation is for understanding the characteristics of gravitational potential energy. The explanation part is for acquiring prior knowledge to understand the contents of Chapter 3(3. Birth and Expansion of the Universe from the Uncertainty Principle), which introduces and explains the uncertainty principle. From the energy-time uncertainty principle, ΔtΔE≥hbar/2 When quantum fluctuations occur in a vacuum, the initial state is the zero energy state. At this time, considering the situation in which quantum fluctuations occur due to the uncertainty principle, In this case, since there is a ΔE for which the gravitational force will act and a time Δt for which the gravitational force will propagate, we can approximately set the gravitational interaction distance R = cΔt. Thus, either gravitational self energy or gravitational potential energy exists. When the uncertainty principle existed alone, quantum fluctuations could only exist for Δt, after which they had to return to nothing, but since gravitational interactions exist during Δt, they do not return to nothing. expansion will occur. This mechanism can be applied both to the birth of the universe and to inflation. Please read more in Chapter 3. As for question number 3, it seems possible if multiple quantum fluctuations occur, not just one. If quantum fluctuations occurred everywhere in space, expansion beyond the speed of light, c, is thought to be possible. Also, since there are many debates about the existing inflation model(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflation_(cosmology)), there is a possibility that the results obtained through the existing inflation model may be wrong. That is, an accelerated expansion of the early universe is necessary, but leaves room for details.

2.2.1. Binding energy in the mass defect problem Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! When two masses form a bonded state, a stable bonded state is achieved only when energy is released to the outside of the system as much as the binding energy. In (c), the total energy of the two particle system is Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! In the dimensional analysis of energy, E has kg(m/s)^2, so all energy can be expressed in the form of (mass) X (velocity)^2. So, E=Mc^2 holds true for all kinds of energy. Here, M is the equivalent mass. If we introduce the negative equivalent mass $- m_{gp}$ for the gravitational potential energy, Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! The gravitational force acting on a relatively distant third mass m_3 is Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! That is, when considering the gravitational action of a bind system, not only the mass in its free state but also the binding energy term (-m_gp) should be considered. Alternatively, the gravitational force acting on the bind system can be decomposed into a free-state mass term and an equivalent mass term of binding energy. While we usually use the mass $m^*$ of the bind system, we forget that m^* is "m - m_{binding-energy}''. Gravitational potential energy is also a kind of binding energy. Therefore, the gravitational potential energy, which is the binding energy, must also be considered in the universe. Look at the second term again, it is the repulsive force (anti-gravity) term. \(F_{gp} = + \frac{{G( {m_{gp}}){m_3}}}{{{R^2}}}\) In our surroundings, the equivalent mass term of gravitational potential energy is so small compared to the mass term that it can be neglected. However, if the gravitational field is strong, the gravitational force created by the gravitational potential energy must be considered. 1. Gravitation and Spacetime (Book) : 25~29P https://www.amazon.com/Gravitation-Spacetime-Second-Hans-Ohanian/dp/0393965015 Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! Table 1.3also includes a result for gravitational energy, which was obtained by different means. The E¨otv¨os experiments do not permit a direct test of the hypothesis that gravitational energy contributes to the gravitational mass, because the ostensible macroscopic amounts of gravitational self-energy in masses of laboratory size are much too small to affect these experiments. Theoretical considerations suggest that the rest masses of electrons, protons, and neutrons include large amounts of gravitational self-energy, but we do not know how to calculate these self-energies (for the implications of this, see the later discussion).If we want to discover whether gravity gravitates, we must examine the behavior of large masses, of planetary size, with significant and calculable amounts of gravitational self-energy.Treating the Earth as a continuous, classical mass distribution (with no gravitational self-energy in the elementary, subatomic particles), we find that its gravitational self-energy is about 4.6×10^10 times its rest-mass energy. The gravitational self-energy of the Moon is smaller, only about 0.2×10^10 times its rest-mass energy. 2. Explanation of GRAVITY PROBE B https://einstein.stanford.edu/conten...ty/a11278.html Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! Do gravitational fields produce their own gravity? Yes. A gravitational field contains energy just like electromagnetic fields do. This energy also produces its own gravity, and this means that unlike all other fields, gravity can interact with itself and is not 'neutral'. The energy locked up in the gravitational field of the earth is about equal to the mass of Mount Everest, so that for most applications, you do not have to worry about this 'self-interaction' of gravity when you calculate how other bodies move in the earth's gravitational field.

icarus2: I don't understand your diagrams from section 2.2.1 and the associated expressions. What is $E_T$ there? Are the masses in those diagrams stationary or moving? I assume they must be stationary, because there are no kinetic energy terms. Is that right? Your expressions say that $E_T$ is the sum of the energy in the "system" and "outside of the system". But if $E_T$ isn't the total mechanical energy of the system of two masses, what is it? The "T" subscript suggests that it is supposed to be the total energy of something, but what? I also don't understand why you are adding the "outside the system" terms. For example, in (c), why is the "outside the system" energy equal to $+Gmm/r$? In what form is that energy? What is it the energy of?

In the picture, it is when it is stationary. Conservation of mechanical energy is an expression applied when a system is in the process of change. On the other hand, the explanation above is "when the system has reached a stable state." ===== When two masses form a bonded state, a stable bonded state is achieved only when energy is released to the outside of the system as much as the binding energy. ===== In elementary particle physics, when the energy level transitions from the E_2 level to the E_1 level, In the analysis by the mechanical energy conservation equation, the electron in the E_1 level must have all the energy in the E_2 level. Since energy must be conserved, that is, energy equal to the difference between potential energy of E_2 level and E_1 level is converted into kinetic energy and possessed. However, this is not true in the final stabilized state. In order for the electron to exist in a stable state at the E_1 level, the excess energy must be released to the outside of the system to become stable at the E_1 level. At this time, the energy released to the outside of the system is equal to the difference in binding energy between the two energy levels. This situation also occurs in gravity. This is because gravitational potential energy is also a type of binding energy. In the picture, the reason the outside of the system is necessary is that there is an energy release to the outside of the system in order for the two-particle bound system to achieve a stable state.

I'm right there with ya ... I do have a question that to me seems simple enough . Umm, wouldn't anti energy still be energy fundamentally? Like frozen H20 to steam and the variables in-between, but then fire and mass like .... Nevermind. It's all energy and I'll assume anti energy is still energy, so it's only a matter of time before energy reproduces itself or transforms into other types of energy ... Right? That's the only way I'm able to grasp anything even remotely related to the birth of umm ... The universe. It has always been, it just keeps changing.

icarus2: This is all fine. However, you haven't answered some of the specific questions I asked: Your expressions say that $E_T$ is the sum of the energy in the "system" and "outside of the system". But if $E_T$ isn't the total mechanical energy of the system of two masses, what is it? The "T" subscript suggests that it is supposed to be the total energy of something, but what? I also don't understand why you are adding the "outside the system" terms. For example, in (c), why is the "outside the system" energy equal to $+Gmm/r$? In what form is that energy? What is it the energy of?