https://www.universetoday.com/148841/there-might-be-water-on-all-rocky-planets/ There Might Be Water On All Rocky Planets If you asked someone who was reasonably scientifically literate how Earth got its water, they’d likely tell you it came from asteroids—or maybe comets and planetesimals, too—that crashed into our planet in its early days. There’s detail, nuance, and uncertainty around that idea, but it’s widely believed to be the most likely reason that Earth has so much water. But a new explanation for Earth’s water is emerging. It says that the water comes along for the ride when Earth formed out of the solar nebula. If that’s correct, it means that most rocky planets might have water for at least a portion of their lives. A new paper presents evidence suggesting that water isn’t delivered to rocky planets but forms as part of the planet-forming process itself. The title of the paper is “Early oxidation of the martian crust triggered by impacts.” The lead author is Zhengbin Deng, an Assistant Professor at the Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Globe Institute, University of Copenhagen. The study is published in the journal Science Advances. “There are two hypotheses about the emergence of water. One is that it arrives on planets by accident, when asteroids containing water collide with the planet in question,” said co-author Professor Martin Bizzarro in a press release. Bizarro is also from the Centre for Star and Planet Formation at the University of Copenhagen. “The other hypothesis is that water emerges in connection with the formation of the planet. Our study suggests that this hypothesis is correct, and if that is true, it is extremely exciting, because it means that the presence of water is a bioproduct of the planet formation process,” Martin Bizzarro explains. The evidence for this hypothesis comes from a small meteorite named Black Beauty. Black Beauty (aka Northwest Africa 7034) is a chunk of Mars that fell to Earth and was discovered in the Sahara Desert in 2011. It was mysterious because it defied categorization. Eventually, scientists determined that it represented a new classification of Martian meteorites they named “Martian (basaltic breccia)”. more at link..................... the paper: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/44/eabc4941 Early oxidation of the martian crust triggered by impacts: Abstract Despite the abundant geomorphological evidence for surface liquid water on Mars during the Noachian epoch (>3.7 billion years ago), attaining a warm climate to sustain liquid water on Mars at the period of the faint young Sun is a long-standing question. Here, we show that melts of ancient mafic clasts from a martian regolith meteorite, NWA 7533, experienced substantial Fe-Ti oxide fractionation. This implies early, impact-induced, oxidation events that increased by five to six orders of magnitude the oxygen fugacity of impact melts from remelting of the crust. Oxygen isotopic compositions of sequentially crystallized phases from the clasts show that progressive oxidation was due to interaction with an 17O-rich water reservoir. Such an early oxidation of the crust by impacts in the presence of water may have supplied greenhouse gas H2 that caused an increase in surface temperature in a CO2-thick atmosphere.