In the case of a 12 gauge copper wire carrying 10 amperes of current (typical of home wiring), the individual electrons only move about 0.02 cm per sec or 1.2 inches per minute (in science this is called the drift velocity of the electrons.) And the electric bulb lights up immediately when we turn the switch on......it sets the electrons along the way into motion all along the wire. So it appears as if the electrons are moving very fast, when in fact they don't. From wiki (u = mσΔV/ρefℓ where u is again the drift velocity of the electrons, in m⋅s−1. m is the molecular mass of the metal, in kg. σ is the electric conductivity of the medium at the temperature considered, in S/m. ΔV is the voltage applied across the conductor, in V. ρ is the density (mass per unit volume) of the conductor, in kg⋅m^−3. e is the elementary charge, in C. f is the number of free electrons per atom. ℓ is the length of the conductor, in m.) Now about a step up transformer..... Suppose, Secondary winded coil that the coil wire is 3×10^8 m long. Primary coil wire is perfect for 50 Hz AC frequency. My questions.... 1.When the output AC frequency is same as input AC frequency? 2. If input AC frequency is 50 Hz then what is the output frequency, 50 Hz or O Hz? Thanks.