electromagnetic vibrations of various wavelengths and ionizing potential.

Discussion in 'Physics & Math' started by K.FLINT, Feb 23, 2008.

1. K.FLINTDevil's advocate :DRegistered Senior Member

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Electromagnetic vibrations of various wavelengths and ionizing potential vacuum fluctuations. Also known as Zero Point Energy.

Posted by K.Flint

The New Scientist July 1987, "Why Atoms Don't Collapse"

"There is a dynamic equilibrium in which the zero-point energy stabilises the electron in a set ground-state orbit. It seems that the very stability of matter itself appears to depend on an underlying sea of electromagnetic zero-point energy."

This assumes you know somthing on the subject but I have added some basics as well as links to key aspects to understanding the subject matter at the end of the paper.

Basics:

Earth's surface has a negative (DC) charge and the atmosphere has a positive (DC) charge. In quantum mechanics, disturbances in the electromagnetic fields are called photons, and the energy of photons is quantized.

Photons as a carrier of electromagnetic radiation is commonly used by physicists. However, in theoretical physics, a photon can be considered as a mediator for any type of electromagnetic interactions, including magnetic fields and electrostatic repulsion between like charges.

Electrostatic potential also see Scalar potential

At a point in space, the electric potential is the potential energy per unit of charge that is associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field. It is typically measured in volts, and is a Lorentz scalar quantity. The difference in electrical potential between two points is known as voltage.

There is also a generalized electric scalar potential that is used in electrodynamics when time-varying electromagnetic fields are present. This generalized electric potential cannot be simply interpreted as a potential energy, however.

Because the electric field is irrotational, it is possible to express the electric field as the gradient of a scalar function, called the electrostatic potential.

Global Electromagnetic Resonances Schumann resonance

This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonance occurs because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a waveguide.

The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by energy from lightning strikes. Schumann resonance modes are observed in the power spectra of the natural electromagnetic background noise, as separate peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.

According to Maxwell's equations, a time-varying electric field generates a magnetic field and vice versa. Therefore, as an oscillating electric field generates an oscillating magnetic field, the magnetic field in turn generates an oscillating electric field, and so on. Simply stated the electric field stores energy.

Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space even when devoid of matter. It is observed in various experiments relating to the spontaneous emission of light or gamma radiation, the Casimir effect, the Van-Der Waals bonds, the Lamb shift, etc.

Vacuum energy has a number of consequences. In 1948 Dutch physicists Hendrik B. G. Casimir and Dirk Polder predicted the existence of a tiny attractive force between closely placed metal plates due to resonances in the vacuum energy in the space between them.

This is now known as the Casimir effect and has since been extensively experimentally verified. It is therefore believed that the vacuum energy is "real" in the same sense that more familiar conceptual objects such as electrons, magnetic fields, etc. are real.

This Vacuum is als known as Zero Point Energy. (ZPE)

From this line of reasoning, quantum physics predicts that all of space must be filled with electromagnetic zero-point fluctuations creating a universal sea of zero-point energy. The density of this energy depends critically on where in frequency the zero-point fluctuations cease.

Since space itself is thought to break up into a kind of quantum foam at a tiny distance scale called the Planck scale (10-33 cm), it is argued that the zero point fluctuations must cease at a corresponding Planck frequency (1043 Hz). If that is the case, the zero-point energy density would be 110 orders of magnitude greater than the radiant energy at the center of the Sun.

LORENTZ INVARIANCE OF THE SPECTRUM

That the spectrum of zero-point radiation has a frequency-cubed dependence is of great significance. That is the only kind of spectrum that has the property of being Lorentz invariant.

The effect of motion is to Doppler shift detected electromagnetic radiation, but a frequency-cubed spectrum has the property that up- and down-shifting of the radiation is exactly compensated, i.e. there is as much radiation Doppler shifted into a given frequency intervaL as there is shifted out by uniform motion.

A remarkably different phenomenon occurs when accelerating through zero-point radiation. The zero-point radiation acts upon an accelerating detector as if the detector were immersed in a thermal spectrum, even though heat and temperature are not involved. The perceived ''temperature'' is directly proportional to the acceleration.

The ZPE fluctuations are fundamentally based upon the uncertainty principle, which has been predicted to be "signed into law" someday soon, since no violations have so far been found.

Furthermore, the majority of physicists today attribute spontaneous emission and the Lamb shift entirely to ZPE (as noted in Hawton's paper). This may lead everyone to believe that though it is random, it can no longer be called "spontaneous emission" but instead should properly be labeled "stimulated emission" much like laser light is stimulated emission, even though there is a random quality to it.

Textbooks on quantum theory already agree with this new interpretation:

"The smallest possible energy of the field corresponds to the presence of one-half quantum per state. This suggests that we regard the spontaneous emission as being induced by the zero-point oscillations of the electromagnetic field; note, however, that these oscillations are twice as effective in producing emissive transitions as are real photons and are of course incapable of producing absorptive transitions." – Schiff, Quantum Mechanics, 3rd edition

Past and Current Research:

The first documented observations of global electromagnetic resonances were made by Nikola Tesla in 1905 and formed the basis for his scheme for broadcast power and wireless communications. see [MODTRAN]

Many of Tesla's inventions and huge amounts of his data was taken by the us government after his death and many of the things he created have since been patented by the government and put to use in all manners of technology.

Tesla still continues to change the world as we know it. It is not well known but without the research done by Tesla our world would be a very different palce.

Planck And Einstein Infer A Zero-Point Energy

Because of his dissatisfaction, Planck in 1910 formulated his second theory. In this he derived the blackbody spectral formula with a weaker quantisation assumption.

His equations, published in 1911, pointed directly to the existence of a zero-point energy. Planck’s equation for the radiant energy density of a black body had the same temperature-dependent term that he had derived in his first theory. However, this new approach contained an additional (½)hf term that was totally independent of temperature and indicated a uniform, isotropic background radiation.

Inspired by this development, Niels Bohr in 1913 quantised energy levels in the atom on the basis of Planck’s constant ‘h’. Even a decade later, Bohr was careful to point out that his model of the atom agreed with classical physics when quantum numbers are high. Today that is known as the "correspondence principle".

Assuming quantization and its suggestion that the Bohr orbit of hydrogen could arise without a quantum law. In the latter case, the ground state electron is assumed to emit Larmor radiation which causes it to spiral inward, but this does not lead to collapse of the orbit because the electron also absorbs zero-point energy.

The calculation of the absorption was done by Boyer and later by Puthoff by treating the electron as undergoing harmonic oscillation rather than true motion in a Coulomb potential.

It is striking that the Larmor emission and harmonic-oscillator-type absorption prove to be in balance exactly at the Bohr radius. The fact that the orbital angular momentum is zero in the quantum ground state is mirrored in the SED orbiting-electron interpretation by random changes in the orbital plane (due to the zero-point fluctuations) yielding a time averaged zero net angular momentum.

Importantly, and also in 1913, Albert Einstein and Otto Stern published an analysis of the interaction between matter and radiation using simple dipole oscillators to represent charged particles, an approach based firmly on classical physics.

They remarked that if, for some reason, such a dipole oscillator had a zero-point energy, that is, if there was an irreducible energy of ‘hf’ at absolute zero of temperature, the Planck radiation formula would result without the need to invoke quantisation at all.

This important point has been proven correct since Timothy Boyer and others have made just such derivations. These calculations show that in fact the irreducible energy of each oscillator must be (½)hf, as Planck and Nernst correctly deduced, rather than Einstein and Stern’s hf.

In 1925 that experimental evidence was obtained and the existence of the Zero-Point Energy was confirmed. Chemist Robert Mulliken found this proof in the spectrum of boron monoxide.

As he analyzed the wavelengths of these spectral lines, he discovered a slight shift from the theoretical position that these lines would have had if the ZPE did not exist. What happens is that the zero-point fields slightly perturb an electron in an atom so that, when it makes a transition from one state to another, it emits light whose wavelength is shifted slightly from its normal value.

Some years later, a similar shift of wavelength in the microwave region of the hydrogen spectrum was experimentally established by Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford using techniques developed for radar.

Today, the Lamb shift of spectral lines, as the effect is now generally called, is quoted as one of the observational proofs for the existence of the ZPE.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that the uncertainty of time multiplied by the uncertainty of the energy of a particle is closely approximated to Planck’s constant ‘h’ divided by 2p. In a parallel way, the uncertainty of position of a particle multiplied by the uncertainty in the particle’s momentum is again approximately equal to h/(2p).

This quantum uncertainty, or indeterminacy, governed by the value of ‘h’, imposes fundamental limitations on the precision with which a number of physical quantities associated with atomic processes can be measured.

When Planck’s quantum condition and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle are applied to atomic particles at absolute zero, theoretically each particle should have some residual motion and hence energy, namely the zero-point energy.

After a detailed treatment of the foregoing sketch, Eisberg and Resnick go on to say “We conclude that there must be a zero-point energy because there must be a zero-point motion … the particle cannot have zero total energy” .

A similar argument can be applied to electromagnetic fields. Thus the ZPE becomes a part of this approach, but only indirectly through the uncertainty principle.

The Casimir Effect

Based on Casimir's 1948 paper.

In physics, the Casimir effect or Casimir-Polder force is a physical force exerted between separate objects due to resonance of all-pervasive energy fields in the intervening space between the objects.

This is sometimes described in terms of virtual particles interacting with the objects, due to the mathematical form of one possible way of calculating the strength of the effect. Because the strength of the force falls off rapidly with distance, it is only measurable when the distance between the objects is extremely small. On a submicrometre scale, this force becomes so strong that it becomes the dominant force between uncharged conductors.

Hendrik B. G. Casimir not only predicted the presence of such a force as ZPe but also explained why van der Waals forces dropped off unexpectedly at long range separation between atoms, predicting that force F=K/d4 where K=p hc/480. Though the Casimir effect subsequently was verified using non-conductive plates, there was always a scientific need for a verification of the Casimir force using conductive plates based on Casimir's 1948 paper.

Dr. Lamoreaux, now at the Los Alamos Labs, performed the experiment with less than one micrometer (micron) spacing between gold-plated parallel plates attached to a torsion pendulum (Phys. Rev. Ltrs., 78, 1, 97). In retrospect, he found it to one of the most intellectually satisfying experiments that he ever performed since the results matched the theory so closely (within 5%).

The Casimir effect has been posited as a force produced solely by activity in the vacuum. The Casimir force is also very powerful at small distances. Besides being independent of temperature, it is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the distance between the plates!

Therefore, as the plates are brought closer, the virtual particles outside the plates increasingly overpower the decreasing quantity of virtual particles appearing between the plates with an exponentially increasing force. (Also notable is the fact that its frequency dependence is a third power and the force can be altered with dielectrics or resonate with narrow-band mirrors.

Lamoreaux's results come as no surprise to anyone familiar with quantum electrodynamics (QED), but they serve as a material confirmation of an unusual theoretical prediction that QED predicts the all-pervading vacuum continuously spawns particles and waves that spontaneously pop in and out of existence.

Their time of existence is strictly limited by the uncertainty principle but they create some havoc while they bounce around during their brief lifespan. The churning quantum foam extends throughout the universe even filling the empty space within the atoms.

A diagram showing "The Shape of Nothing" (The New York Times 1/21/97) is pictured to be not only subatomic but subelementary particle in size. Physical theories predict that on an infinitesimally small scale, far, far smaller than the diameter of atomic nucleus, quantum fluctuations produce a foam of erupting and collapsing, virtual particles, visualized as a topographic distortion of the fabric of space time.

Another implication for free energy from ZPE comes from the fact that Casimir also mentioned a three-dimensional volume effect (Physica XIX, 1956, 846). This has recently been used with the relativistic stress-energy tensor to analyze the quantum electromagnetic field inside any given volume. With a "relatively" simple calculation it has been shown that as the electron density increases due to gravitational compression, there is an energy creation. "The energy output produced by the Casimir effect during the creation of a neutron star turns out to be sufficient to explain nova and supernova explosions" (Sokolov, Phys. Lett. A, 223, 1996, 163-166).

Richard Feynman and others have pointed out that the amount of ZPE in one cubic centimetre of the vacuum is greater than the energy density in an atomic nucleus. In an atomic nucleus alone, the energy density is of the order of 1044 ergs per cubic centimeter.

The minimum value that I have seen quoted for the ZPE is 1052 ergs per cubic centimeter…In actual practice, recent work suggests there may be an upper limit for the estimation of the ZPE at about 10114 ergs per cubic centimeter.

In order to appreciate how large this quantity of energy is in each cubic centimeter of space, consider the most conservative estimate of 1052 ergs/cc.

This is equivalent to the energy required to vertically lift 100,000 billion tonnes a distance of 1024 kilometers through a gravitational field as strong as at the earth’s surface. And 1024 km is roughly equivalent to 100 billion light years, about 5 times further than the most distant object observed in the universe!

Another example may be in order. Most people are familiar with the light bulbs with which we illuminate our houses labeled as 150 watts.

By comparison, our sun radiates energy at the rate of 3.8 x 1020 watts. In our galaxy there are in excess of 100 billion stars. Let us assume that they each radiate at roughly the same rate as our sun. Then the amount of energy expended by this whole galaxy of stars shining for one million years is roughly equivalent to the energy locked up in one cubic centimeter of space.

Theoretical Physics to Main Stream Physics:

A thought experiment for a device that readily demonstrates how the Casimir force could be put to use in principle was proposed by physicist Robert Forward in 1984 (see below). A ''vacuum fluctuation battery'' could be constructed consisting of stacked conducting plates. Applying the same polarity charge to all the plates would yield a repulsive force between plates, thereby opposing the Casimir force which is acting to push the plates together. Adjusting the electrostatic force so as to permit the Casimir force to dominate will result in adding energy to the electric field between the plates, thereby converting zero-point energy to electric energy.
http://www.csulb.edu/colleges/coe/ee/views/personnel/fulltime_emeritus/rueda.shtml

Test of Mach's Principle With a Mechanical Oscillator is an oging and mear completed project at NASA.
http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/reports/2004/CR-2004-213310.pdf

"EXTRACTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM THE VACUUM BY COHESION OF CHARGED FOLIATED CONDUCTORS", Robert L. Forward, Physical Review B, Vol. 30, num. 4, Aug. 1984, pages 1700-1702.
http://www.utahspace.org/special/forward.html

Refrence papers and Credits due:

Casimir effect
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casimir_effect

Electrostatics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrostatics

Cavity resonator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resonant_cavity

Electric field
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_field

Electric potential
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_potential

Phantom circuit
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phantom_circuit

Refrence to Einstein
http://www.tc.umn.edu/~janss011/pdf files/potsandholes.pdf

Riemannian manifold
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemannian_manifold

Scalar curvature
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_curvature

Scalar field
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_waves

Scalar potential
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_potential

Schumann resonance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schumann_resonance

Solenoid & Solenoid valve
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solenoid_valve

Tesla Coils & Tesla Antenna
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_Coil

Understanding Zero Point Energy
http://users.erols.com/iri/ZPEpaper.html

Vacuum permittivity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permittivity_of_free_space

Vacuum energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_energy

Zero Point Energy and Zero Point Field
http://www.calphysics.org/zpe.html

Alphabetical Title Lists for NASA Glenn Technical Reports
http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/titles.aspx?act=1&year=2004

Journal of Theoretics "Exploring the Vacuum"

The Bountiful Fullness of Empty Space
http://www.ldolphin.org/emptyspace.html

The Sea of Energy by T. Henry Moray
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Henry_Moray
http://www.cheniere.org/books/excalibur/moray.htm

Test of Mach's Principle With a Mechanical Oscillator
http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/reports/2004/CR-2004-213310.pdf

MODTRAN
(MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission) is a computer program designed to model atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic radiation.Some aspects of MODTRAN are patented by the US Air Force.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MODTRAN

Nikola Tesla : US Patent 514168 Means For Generating Electric Currents
http://www.rastko.org.yu/cms/files/books/46c5d85549878.pdf

Last edited: Feb 23, 2008

3. K.FLINTDevil's advocate :DRegistered Senior Member

Messages:
225
Very Sleepy

I did this all at once and have not slept in a long time. I am very sleepy as such I may have left things out or made other mistakes. I will check my work and fix or add things as needed. If you have any suggestions or comments let me know. :sleep:

5. ReikuBannedBanned

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Very interesting work.

7. ReikuBannedBanned

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11,238
(Strangely enough i have seen a copy of this work on the net... i assum you are the same author

)

8. K.FLINTDevil's advocate :DRegistered Senior Member

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225
As listed in the refrences, portions of this paper have been gathered from many sources.. Tesla, Einstein, wikipedia, NASA. I tried to hit all the basis, which can not really be done on this subject. The subject matter is to large and the relivant information is spread out every where over a 100+ year span.

This will be an on going project. Feel free to add to it. once I have enough information and refrences I plan to edit and publish as a informative paper. I will list all who contribute.

Strange that the "normal" feedback has not come in. I was looking to those playing the devil's advocate to speak out so I could clean up and fix any mistakes.