James A. Shapiro is an American biologist who has stirred quite a controversy within biology circles and within the evolution debate, he has written a book on evolution titled "Evolution: A View from the 21st Century" which pretty much challenges the modern synthesis school. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_A._Shapiro What is Dr. Shapiro's book about? According to Gert Korthof: According to John Wilkins: In a lecture to other scientists, Shapiro has defined himself and others as "non-Darwinian evolutionists" http://shapiro.bsd.uchicago.edu/2010.WorksOfTheMind.pdf His list includes: • William Bateson (1861-1926) & Hugo de Vries (1848-1935): abrupt variation as a source of evolutionary novelty • Richard Goldschmidt (1878-1958): altering developmental processes as a source of rapid evolutionary novelty (“hopeful monsters” and Evo-Devo) • Barbara McClintock (1902-1992): genetic change as a biological response to danger and evolutionary novelty through genome restructuring resulting from “shocks” • G Ledyard Stebbins (1906-2000): hybridization between species as a source of evolutionary novelty • Carl Woese (1928- ): molecular phylogeny and the existence of at least three distinct cell kingdoms • Lynn Margulis (1938- ): cell mergers/symbiogenesis as a source of evolutionary novelty It seems all of these scientific mechanisms do not fit into a Darwinian framework. Shapiro has also posted articles about natural genetic engineering and evolution. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-a-shapiro/genetic-engineering_b_1541180.html According to Dr. Shapiro: According to another website: You can watch one of his lectures on video here: http://vimeo.com/17592530 I would like to discuss this "Third Way Evolution" viewpoint that he talks about. He seems to be saying there is much wrong with the neo-Darwinian view of evolution, this is in contradiction to some of the other threads where users on this forum have expressed that they think there is no debate in evolution, they seem to think the mechanisms are solved... the work of Shapiro and other "post-Darwinian" thinkers is proving that wrong. Their work is proving that evolution is clearly more complex and facinating then many thought it to be.