Psychology of Conspiracy Theorists

Discussion in 'Conspiracies' started by James R, Feb 18, 2015.

  1. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    https://www.fastcompany.com/90375425/apollo-11-landed-moon-how-you-can-be-sure-sorry-conspiracy

    Apollo 11 really landed on the Moon—and here’s how you can be sure (sorry, conspiracy nuts)
    We went to the Moon. Here’s all the proof you’ll ever need.

    This is the 43rd in an exclusive series of 50 articles, one published each day until July 20, exploring the 50th anniversary of the first-ever Moon landing. You can check out 50 Days to the Moon here every day.


    The United States sent astronauts to the Moon, they landed, they walked around, they drove around, they deployed lots of instruments, they packed up nearly half a ton of Moon rocks, and they flew home.

    No silly conspiracy was involved.

    There were no Hollywood movie sets.

    Anybody who writes about Apollo and talks about Apollo is going to be asked how we actually know that we went to the Moon.

    Not that the smart person asking the question has any doubts, mind you, but how do we know we went, anyway?

    It’s a little like asking how we know there was a Revolutionary War. Where’s the evidence? Maybe it’s just made up by the current government to force us to think about America in a particular way.

    How do we know there was a Titanic that sank?

    And by the way, when I go to the battlefields at Gettysburg—or at Normandy, for that matter—they don’t look much like battlefields to me. Can you prove we fought a Civil War? World War II?

    In the case of Apollo, in the case of the race to the Moon, there is a perfect reply.

    The race to the Moon in the 1960s was, in fact, an actual race.

    The success of the Soviet space program—from Sputnik to Strelka and Belka to Yuri Gagarin—was the reason for Apollo. John Kennedy launched America to the Moon precisely to beat the Russians to the Moon.

    When Kennedy was frustrated with the fact that the Soviets were first to achieve every important milestone in space, he asked Vice President Lyndon Johnson to figure it out—fast. The opening question of JFK’s memo to LBJ:

    “Do we have a chance of beating the Soviets by putting a laboratory in space, or by a trip around the Moon, or by a rocket to land on the Moon, or by a rocket to go to the Moon and back with a man. Is there any other space program which promises dramatic results in which we could win?”

    Win. Kennedy wanted to know how to beat the Soviets—how to win in space.

    That memo was written a month before Kennedy’s dramatic “go to the Moon” speech. The race to the Moon he launched would last right up to the moment, almost 100 months later, when Apollo 11 would land on the Moon.

    The race would shape the American and Soviet space programs in subtle and also dramatic ways.

    Apollo 8 was the first U.S. mission that went to the Moon: The Apollo capsule and the service module, with Frank Borman, Bill Anders, and Jim Lovell, flew to the Moon at Christmastime in 1968, but without a lunar module. The lunar modules were running behind, and there wasn’t one ready for the flight.

    Apollo 8 represented a furious rejuggling of the NASA flight schedule to accommodate the lack of a lunar module. The idea was simple: Let’s get Americans to the Moon quick, even if they weren’t ready to land on the Moon. Let’s “lasso the Moon” before the Soviets do.

    At the moment when the mission was conceived and the schedule redone to accommodate a different kind of Apollo 8, in late summer 1968, NASA officials were worried that the Russians might somehow mount exactly the same kind of mission: Put cosmonauts in a capsule and send them to orbit the Moon, without landing. Then the Soviets would have made it to the Moon first.

    Apollo 8 was designed to confound that, and it did.
    more..............
    In early December 1968, in fact, the rivalry remained alive enough that Time magazine did a cover story on it. “Race for the Moon” was the headline, and the cover was an illustration of an American astronaut and a Soviet cosmonaut, in spacesuits, leaping for the surface of the Moon.

    Seven months later, when Apollo 11, with Michael Collins, Neil Armstrong, and Buzz Aldrin aboard, entered orbit around the Moon on July 19, 1969, there was a Soviet spaceship there to meet them. It was Luna 15, and it had been launched a few days before Apollo 11. Its goal: Land on the Moon, scoop up Moon rocks and dirt, and then dash back to a landing in the Soviet Union before Collins, Aldrin, and Armstrong could return with their own Moon rocks.

    If that had happened, the Soviets would at least have been able to claim that they had gotten Moon rocks back to Earth first (and hadn’t needed people to do it).

    So put aside for a moment the pure ridiculousness of a Moon landing conspiracy that somehow doesn’t leak out. More than 410,000 Americans worked on Apollo, on behalf of 20,000 companies. Was their work fake? Were they all in on the conspiracy? And then, also, all their family members—more than 1 million people—not one of whom ever whispered a word of the conspiracy?

    What of the reporters? Hundreds of reporters covering space, writing stories not just of the dramatic moments, but about all the local companies making space technology, from California to Delaware.

    Put aside as well the thousands of hours of audio recordings—between spacecraft and mission control; in mission control, where dozens of controllers talked to each other; in the spacecraft themselves, where there were separate recordings of the astronauts just talking to each other in space. There were 2,502 hours of Apollo spaceflight, more than 100 days. It’s an astonishing undertaking not only to script all that conversation, but then to get people to enact it with authenticity, urgency, and emotion. You can now listen to all of it online, and it would take you many years to do so.

    For those who believe the missions were fake, all that can, somehow, be waved off. A puzzling shadow in a picture from the Moon, a quirk in a single moment of audio recording, reveals that the whole thing was a vast fabrication. (With grace and straight-faced reporting, the Associated Press this week reviewed, and rebutted, the most popular sources of the conspiracy theories.)

    Forget all that.

    If the United States had been faking the Moon landings, one group would not have been in on the conspiracy: The Soviets.

    The Soviet Union would have revealed any fraud in the blink of an eye, and not just without hesitation, but with joy and satisfaction.

    In fact, the Russians did just the opposite. The Soviet Union was one of the few places on Earth (along with China and North Korea) where ordinary people couldn’t watch the landing of Apollo 11 and the Moon walk in real time. It was real enough for the Russians that they didn’t let their own people see it.

    That’s all the proof you need. If the Moon landings had been faked—indeed, if any part of them had been made up, or even exaggerated—the Soviets would have told the world. They were watching. Right to the end, they had their own ambitions to be first to the Moon, in the only way they could muster at that point.

    And that’s a kind of proof that the conspiracy-meisters cannot wriggle around.
     
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  3. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    The excellent article on the subject of these nutty ratbags conspiracy theorists that walk amongst us concludes thus............................

    But another thing is true about the Moon landings: You’ll never convince someone who wants to think they were faked that they weren’t. There is nothing in particular you could ever say, no particular moment or piece of evidence you could produce, that would cause someone like that to light up and say, “Oh! You’re right! We did go to the Moon.”

    Anyone who wants to live in a world where we didn’t go to the Moon should be happy there. That’s a pinched and bizarre place, one that defies not just the laws of physics but also the laws of ordinary human relationships.


    I prefer to live in the real world, the one in which we did go to the Moon, because the work that was necessary to get American astronauts to the Moon and back was extraordinary. It was done by ordinary people, right here on Earth, people who were called to do something they weren’t sure they could, and who then did it, who rose to the occasion in pursuit of a remarkable goal.

    That’s not just the real world, of course. It’s the best of America.

    We went to the Moon, and on the 50th anniversary of that first landing, it’s worth banishing forever the nutty idea that we didn’t, and also appreciating what the achievement itself required, and what it says about the people who were able to do it.

    :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
     
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  5. FatFreddy Registered Senior Member

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  7. billvon Valued Senior Member

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    Some people respond well to education. Some respond well to appeals to emotion. A few people don't really respond to anything except a punch in the face by an ex-astronaut.
     
    paddoboy likes this.
  8. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    Only by fools, liars, charlatans and dishonest mentally retarded ratbags.
    Which are you Freddy.
     
  9. Michael 345 New year. PRESENT is 72 years oldl Valued Senior Member

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    Really? A choice? Really?

    Four choices and some of the choices the words are more than two syllables?

    What are you thinking?

    Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image!

     
  10. FatFreddy Registered Senior Member

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  11. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    27,534
    There is no anomaly/
    But another thing is true about the Moon landings: You’ll never convince someone who wants to think they were faked that they weren’t. There is nothing in particular you could ever say, no particular moment or piece of evidence you could produce, that would cause someone like that to light up and say, “Oh! You’re right! We did go to the Moon.”

    Anyone who wants to live in a world where we didn’t go to the Moon should be happy there. That’s a pinched and bizarre place, one that defies not just the laws of physics but also the laws of ordinary human relationships.

    I prefer to live in the real world, the one in which we did go to the Moon, because the work that was necessary to get American astronauts to the Moon and back was extraordinary. It was done by ordinary people, right here on Earth, people who were called to do something they weren’t sure they could, and who then did it, who rose to the occasion in pursuit of a remarkable goal.

    That’s not just the real world, of course. It’s the best of America.

    We went to the Moon, and on the 50th anniversary of that first landing, it’s worth banishing forever the nutty idea that we didn’t, and also appreciating what the achievement itself required, and what it says about the people who were able to do it.
     
  12. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    27,534
    Again, Only by fools, liars, charlatans and dishonest mentally retarded ratbags. There is absolutely no other way to describe those that push such nonsense, denying that which is so overwhelmingly factual and historical. You have a choice Freddy....
    Which are you Freddy.
    Again, I would love to see you in the midst of a stadium surrounded by ex astronauts and holocaust survivors and their descendants. Instead you lack the guts and intestinal fortitude and choose to spread you vile nonsense from behind a key board.
    typical.
     
  13. FatFreddy Registered Senior Member

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    907
    Start watching this at the 53:00 time mark at double speed.



    Double speed still looks a wee bit too slow. I wish I could speed it up just a little more but it's double or nothing. That movement is pretty close to the way it would look on Earth. Doesn't that make you a little suspicious? Wouldn't the movements in one sixth gravity look radically different from movements on Earth?

    I remember watching this live when I was thirteen. I got bored and went to bed.
     
  14. billvon Valued Senior Member

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    20,696
    Not if you sped them up.
     
  15. FatFreddy Registered Senior Member

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    907

    So if you double the normal speed of movements in one sixth gravity, it looks exactly like the movements in Earth gravity. Doesn't that make you a little suspicious?
     
  16. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    Ignoring the facts and questions again Freddy?
    Perhaps I should go easy with you, as evidence poinst to those readily accepting conspiracy crap, as mentally and pathologically challenged.

    Here are a couple of scientific papers discussing the many questionable and unusual "qualities" of our gullible and impressionable nuts......

    http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=148890

    Belief in conspiracy theories: The situational factors of uncertainty, powerlessness and collective narcissism inside different cultural contexts:

    Abstract
    In conspiracy theories, a group or coalition of people is assumed to work in secret together as to attain what are commonly considered evil goals. Conspiracy beliefs have been linked to negative perceptions and antisocial behaviors, such as distrust, political alienation, detrimental health choices or radicalization. We investigate whether belief in conspiracy theories is associated with uncertainty, powerlessness and collective narcissism into two different ethnic and cultural groups: Greek and Dutch students, with Greeks hypothesized as a more prone to conspiracy theories group due to high uncertainty, collective narcissism and powerlessness levels. Results supported the view that Greeks have higher conspiracy belief endorsement, yet the analysis revealed only uncertainty to be partially mediating the relationship of conspiracy theory beliefs and nationality.

    extract:

    Conspiracy beliefs are distinct to religious, superstitious or paranormal beliefs and are always centered into a powerful group, such as governmental institutions (e.g., CIA), major branches of industry (e.g., banks, oil companies) or negatively stereotyped ethnic groups (e.g., Muslims, Jews; van Prooijen & van Vugt, 2018). Studies indicate that both belief in the supernatural and belief in conspiracy theories occur in non pathological persons and both are widely and increasingly researched inside the spectrum of interdisciplinary social sciences (Sunstein & Vermeule, 2009; Swami et al., 2013; Wiseman & Watt, 2006; Oliver & Wood, 2014; Brotherton, 2015; Douglas, Sutton & Cichocka, 2017).

    Conclusion:
    Belief in conspiracy theories is an eminent and global characteristic of contemporary culture. Conspiracy theories aided by the ease and speed of Internet communication disseminate and proliferate (Coady, 2006) in a substantial portion of the populations. The contribution offered by the current and related studies is to illuminate the underlying mental processes and underlying factors of belief in conspiracy theories but hopefully provide insight of how this can be attenuated. Conspiracist ideation has been proven harmful to health (Jolley & Douglas, 2014; Lamberty & Imhoff, 2018), to people’s interpersonal relationships (Harambam & Aupers, 2015; Lantian, Muller, Nurra, Klein, Berjot, & Pantazi, 2018), to political and environmental awareness and prosocial behavior (Goertzel, 1994; Jolley & Douglas, 2014; Douglas & Sutton, 2015; Van der Linden, 2015). It is therefore the important task of policy makers to use these findings in order to implement strategies to responsibly influence the behavior of citizens. Promoting feelings of security and a sense of empowerment among the public have proved to reduce conspiracy beliefs (Van Prooijen and Acker 2015) as well as the cultivation of analytic and critical thinking do (Swami et al., 2014; Douglas et al., 2016). Since conspiracy beliefs are particularly prevalent among stigmatized minority groups (Crocker et al., 1999; Davis et al., 2018), reducing prejudice and discrimination are also likely to decrease these beliefs. It is our hope that adequate policy interventions will stem from all above referred literature’s precious considerations.

    Appendix B:
    Collective Narcissism Scale
    1.
    I wish other groups would more quickly recognize authority of my group.
    2. My group deserves special treatment.
    3.Not many people seem to fully understand the importance of my group.
    4.I insist upon my group getting the respect that is due to it.
    5.It really makes me angry when others criticize my group.
    6.If my group had a major say in the world, the world would be a much better place.
    7. I do not get upset when people do not notice achievements of my group. (reversed)

    8.The true worth of my group is often misunderstood.
    9.I will never be satisfied until my group gets the recognition it deserves.
    """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
    Interesting paper which those that doubt the general nuttiness narcissim and questionable motives of conspiracists should read.

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    Freddy?
     
  17. FatFreddy Registered Senior Member

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  18. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    There is actually quite a list of reputable scientific papers on conspiracy theories, and the psychological makeup of the people that are prone to and more likely to accept them, albeit without to much thought, and the obvious disregard for the evidence that supports the accepted mainstream version. Most of those papers take a non confrontational approach with sympathetic thought/s to the probably pathological and medical conditions of the mind.
    These papers are mainly addressed to the lay person, stating the relevant facts and with the understanding that perhaps it will show the average Joe Blow, the general inane methodology of our conspiracy theorists as opposed to the increased emphasis on logic and reason, as detailed in these papers, by Doctors, Psychologists etc.
    More papers will follow as needed, and in revealing Freddy for what he really is.
     
  19. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-76840-001

    An existential threat model of conspiracy theories.

    Abstract:
    People endorse conspiracy theories particularly when they experience existential threat, that is, feelings of anxiety or uncertainty often because of distressing societal events. At the same time, such feelings also often lead people to support groups frequently implicated in conspiracy theories (e.g., the government). The present contribution aims to resolve this paradox by proposing an Existential Threat Model of Conspiracy Theories, which stipulates under what conditions existential threat does versus does not stimulate conspiracy theories. The model specifically illuminates that feelings of existential threat increase epistemic sense-making processes, which in turn stimulate conspiracy theories only when antagonistic outgroups are salient. Moreover, once formed conspiracy theories are not functional to reduce feelings of existential threat; instead, conspiracy theories can be a source of existential threat in itself, stimulating further conspiracy theorizing and contributing to a generalized conspiracist mindset. In the discussion, I discuss implications of the model, and illuminate how one may base interventions on the model to breaks this cyclical process and reduce conspiracy beliefs.

     
  20. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    Here's another paper by a sophist out to repair damage control

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    as Freddy would like us to believe, among his many other fairy tail nonsense.

    https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/download/004f341f97d6932463a9aff072088e2fa4601c8c65c993c0905c191f0f902485/94521/Stress & consipir

    Putting the stress on conspiracy theories: examing associations between psychosocial stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories

    Abstract
    Psychological stress and anxiety may be antecedents of belief in conspiracy theories, but tests of this hypothesis are piecemeal. Here, we examined the relationships between stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories in a sample of 420 U.S. adults. Participants completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories, perceived stress, stressful life events, trait and state anxiety, episodic tension, and demographic information. Regression analysis indicated that more stressful life events and greater perceived stress predicted belief in conspiracy theories once effects of social status and age were accounted for (Adj. R2 = .09). State and trait anxiety and episodic tension were not significant predictors. These findings point to stress as a possible antecedent of belief in conspiracy theories.
     
  21. FatFreddy Registered Senior Member

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    907
    The bottom line is that when alleged anomalies are presented, they should be analysed using the scientific method*. If you people were using the scientific method, you wouldn't be using all of this hogwash to avoid analysing post #632. Your avoiding it makes it seem like you know it's good solid evidence that the missions were faked and you're trying to bury it to reduce the number of viewers who see it. If you're sincere truth-seekers, address what I said in post #632.

    (post #632)
    http://www.sciforums.com/threads/psychology-of-conspiracy-theorists.144995/page-32#post-3648926


    *
    https://www.google.com/search?q=sci....69i57j0l7.7023j0j15&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
     
  22. billvon Valued Senior Member

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    Absolutely. And they were.
    If you understood the scientific method you would not say such foolish things. (Hint - the scientific method is not "if I don't understand it, it must be a hoax.")
     
  23. FatFreddy Registered Senior Member

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    907
    The first step in the scientific method is addressing the evidence presented. You refuse to even address post #632.
     

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