Who said it was necessarily monotheist, or theist at all considering I specifically assumed a god does not exist? It is posts like this which make this thread so repetitive. But the difference is that I am talking about internalizing this perspective instead of continuing to think of it as external. Conscience is the "wrongdoer" evaluating their own actions for themselves. "Getting caught" is not even factored into a well-developed conscience. Conscience does have an innate origin, but it can be further developed by conscious volition. Really? What about deism? Deism is the belief that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a God, accompanied with the rejection of revelation and authority as a source of religious knowledge. ... For Deists, human beings can only know God via reason and the observation of nature, but not by revelation or supernatural manifestations (such as miracles) – phenomena which Deists regard with caution if not skepticism. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism It would seem that "revelation and authority" are the grounds on which Capracus has conflated the concept of god with religion, and that the supernatural is how he conflates the mystical. All of which are either outright denied or viewed with skepticism by deists. But again, I assumed a god does not exist, so there is no belief necessary. And why artificially limit the abstract concept to a "Euro-American context"? Besides, I have not used the capitalized "God". Again, deism does not necessarily include any of the trappings of religion. But theism does, broadly, cover deism: Theism, in the broadest sense, is the belief that at least one deity exists. ... The use of the word theism to indicate this classical form of monotheism began during the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century in order to distinguish it from the then-emerging deism which contended that God, though transcendent and supreme, did not intervene in the natural world and could be known rationally but not via revelation. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theism And as you can see, theism was used merely to denote a general belief in the existence of a god before it came to mean the specific belief in a personal and active god.