# What is quark?

Discussion in 'Physics & Math' started by Saint, May 4, 2020.

1. ### SaintValued Senior Member

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When we say "fundamental", means it cannot be broken down to smaller pieces?
However, quark can be converted to energy, right?
In nuclear fission (The collision caused the larger isotope to break apart into two or more elements, which is called nuclear fission. ... Matter disappears during the nuclear reaction. This loss of matter is called the mass defect. The missing matter is converted into energy), loss of mass is also loss of quarks, right?

Then, since quark cannot be divided again, how can it become energy?
Quark is still a tangible matter, but energy is not.
What actually happen to make matter transformed into energy?
What happens to the quarks?

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27,529
Ahhh Saint and his/her search for knowledge again!
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark#Interacting_quarks

https://socratic.org/questions/how-can-matter-be-converted-into-energy
Matter can be converted into energy by annihilation, fission, and fusion.

These are mentioned in

http://socratic.org/questions/how-are-matter-and-energy-related

Some examples are

Annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron meet. They annihilate each other and produce two γ ray photons, each with an energy of 511 keV.

e− + e+ → γ + γ

www.ceessentials.net

Fission is a process in which a nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. For example,

23592U+10n→14156Ba+9236Kr+310n + energy

www.astro.bas.bg

Fusion is a process in which two nuclei join to form a larger nucleus. For example,

21H+31H→42He+10n + energy

"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

Plenty of reading there Saint so get to it!

5. ### mathmanValued Senior Member

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No. After fission total number of neutron and protons (quark compositions) remains the same. Energy available is binding energy.

exchemist likes this.

7. ### SaintValued Senior Member

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238U → 95Sr + 140Xe + 3n

The products have a total mass of

mproducts=94.919388&#xA0;u+139.921610&#xA0;u+3(1.008665&#xA0;u)=237.866993&#xA0;u" role="presentation" style="-webkit-font-smoothing: subpixel-antialiased; padding: 1px 0px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17.44px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; border: 0px; outline: 0px; line-height: 0; overflow-wrap: normal; word-spacing: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 25.844em; min-height: 0px; width: 10000em; position: relative; display: table-cell !important;">mproducts=94.919388 u+139.921610 u+3(1.008665 u)=237.866993 umproducts=94.919388 u+139.921610 u+3(1.008665 u)=237.866993 u

The mass lost is the mass of 238U minus mproducts, or

Δm = 238.050784 u− 237.8669933 u = 0.183791 u,

so the energy released is
E = 0.183791 * 931.5 = 171.2 MeV

There is mass lost.

8. ### exchemistValued Senior Member

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Of course.

This is the mass associated with the change in binding energy, as mathman points out.

The nuclei in the reaction products are more strongly bound than the nuclei of the starting material, which means they have lower energy. This is why the reaction leads to a net energy release.

And, because E=mc², this loss of energy (E) implies a loss of mass (m) , too.

9. ### SaintValued Senior Member

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So mass comes from quarks?

10. ### C CConsular Corps - "the backbone of diplomacy"Valued Senior Member

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Each quark, lepton, and boson of the Standard Model has its own quantum field that it is an excitation in (rather than being a literal particle in some classical sense).

Mass comes from a quantized phenomenon of the Higgs field called the Higgs boson which produces mass via its interaction with other applicable fundamental particles (which are likewise discrete manifestations of their respective fields). An exception might be neutrinos, which might or might need something additional to the Higgs boson.

Last edited: May 9, 2020

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12. ### SaintValued Senior Member

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and what is string?

13. ### mathmanValued Senior Member

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String theory has not yet been verified one way or another, so your questions can't be answered within current theory.

14. ### James RJust this guy, you know?Staff Member

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No. Particles can't be "converted to" energy. Energy is just a number. (This is a regular point I like to hammer home here. I'm starting to sound like Write4U on his bandwagon.)

15. ### SaintValued Senior Member

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what is energy? just the unit off joule ?

16. ### BeaconatorRegistered Senior Member

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Quarks are extremely massive particles that appear in the presence of an unnatural vacuum and much like you say decay, transfer, or otherwise transform into the three basic stable masses ( electrons, neutrons, and protons) with the remainder of photons. Naturally most likely neutrons which have a closer relation to electrons (the only particle that expels and absorbs photons) than protons.

photons are the only type of particle That appear in our detectors and allow us to infer anything one piece of matter might infer about another. (Well except other bosons)

this is just my theory and you can all go to hell trying to differentiate matter from matter.

yet it has been supported by people who can read and inform themselves as of now. Thank you all, and goodnight.

17. ### exchemistValued Senior Member

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Reported, for posting rubbish in the hard science sections of the forum.