Is this how you normally address women? Because it's not working for you. I believe I provided you with that information, with links. Did you not understand any of it? What part of it did you not understand? The current theory is Neanderthals and possibly another hominid species or maybe even more. Why do you ask? Why do you think they were all white? Their genes suggest they came in a range of variation of skin tones, including dark skin. In fact, human skin tones also changed depending on the climate over the course of several generations. The same would have applied to Neanderthals. Homo sapiens did not develop paler skin until around between 12,000 and 8,000 years ago for the most part, long after the Neanderthals became extinct.. Those who lived in areas that we now know as Sweden and Norway, for example, may have developed paler skin a bit earlier than that for obvious reasons. But again, long after Neanderthals became extinct. Pale skin is an adaptation to the climate. Nothing more, nothing less. Why? Because they live close to the equator? How long have they been living there? I want you to consider how many thousands of years, the climate of South America and compare it to the climate of Central and Southern Africa, for example. If you look at the untouched tribes of South America, their skin colour is not white or pale. Adaptations like that take thousands of years, timojin. If you consider how long it took homo sapiens in Europe and Asia to adapt, considering how long they have been there, and then they migrated to the America's and how long ago that was, after adapting to the European and North Asian climate, why do you think they would suddenly be black again after being in the America's for what is technically a fairly short space of time? Do you mean "race"? You seem to be arguing from a standpoint that "modern man" is when their skin colour became white or pale or when they migrated out of Africa. That is how you are coming across. "Modern man" is referred to as 'modern man', because we are the latest and last model of humans. If Neanderthals were the surviving species of humans, they would be referred to as "modern man". And "modern man" did not come about with the migration out of Africa. "Modern man" came about at our earliest evolution in Africa around 200,000 or so years ago, when our species first evolved from our ancestors. Skin colour is merely an adaptation to the environment, which takes thousands of years, as we have seen in Europe and elsewhere. Nothing more, nothing less. No, Neanderthals were not all white or pale. Their genetic markers indicate that their skin colour varied, again, that would be an adaptation depending on where they were living for generations and thousands of years. And Neanderthals did not exist solely in Europe, but also across a lot of the Asian continent as well.