That's an interesting statement. IMO, there is a third option. a) I would rephrase it "there can be no universal goodness without a universal badness." Sometimes what seems bad is good, and sometimes, what seems good is bad. Professor Bartlett has a wonderful lecture where he explains that the "exponential function" may seem good in the short term, but can actually be bad in the long term. Thus its might not necessarily be a question of morality but of probability. Natural Selection functions that way, implacably and with no moral attachment. I really recommend this lecture, it has profound implications.