#### Write4U

**Valued Senior Member**

But you cannot start in the middle. Atoms are the smallest "physical" objects (matter), but they are not the smallest "mathematical values".Highlighted

Write4U ;

The Physical Properties and the Environment of the object and/or objects , in space . Singularly and in atoms . Some have affinity some don't .

Matter is made up of sub-atomic values called "quanta" (smallest known immaterial values).

Physical Properties of objects and the Environmental conditions all have mathematical (quantum) values which determine the actual specific interaction between objects. It is these values that determine the interactive behavior between the objects, not their physical description.

**Quantum state**

In quantum physics, aquantum stateis a mathematical entity that provides a probability distribution for the outcomes of each possible measurement on a system. Knowledge of the quantum state together with the rules for the system's evolution in time exhausts all that can be predicted about the system's behavior. A mixture of quantum states is again a quantum state. Quantum states that cannot be written as a mixture of other states are calledpure quantum states, while all other states are calledmixed quantum states.A pure quantum state can be represented by a ray in a Hilbert space over the complex numbers,[1][2] while mixed states are represented by density matrices, which are positive semidefinite operators that act on Hilbert spaces.[3][4]

Pure states are also known as state vectors or wave functions, the latter term applying particularly when they are represented as functions of position or momentum.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_state#For example, when dealing with the energy spectrum of the electron in a hydrogen atom, the relevant state vectors are identified by the principal quantum numberFor another example, if the spin of an electron is measured in any direction, e.g. with a Stern–Gerlach experiment, there are two possible results: up or down. The Hilbert space for the electron's spin is therefore two-dimensional, constituting a qubit.n, the angular momentum quantum numberl, the magnetic quantum numberm, and the spin z-componentsz.

**Chirality**

An object or a system is

chiralif it is distinguishable from its mirror image; that is, it cannot be superimposed onto it. Conversely, a mirror image of anachiralobject, such as a sphere, cannot be distinguished from the object. A chiral object and its mirror image are calledenantiomorphs(Greek, "opposite forms") or, when referring to molecules,enantiomers. A non-chiral object is calledachiral(sometimes alsoamphichiral) and can be superposed on its mirror image.

The term was first used by L

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiralityord Kelvin in 1893 in the second Robert Boyle Lecture at the Oxford University Junior Scientific Club which was published in 1894:"I call any geometrical figure, or group of points, 'chiral', and say that it has chirality if its image in a plane mirror, ideally realized, cannot be brought to coincide with itself."[1]

IMO, what we call Physics is a scientific discipline which uses mathematics to "describe and "formalize" the observed phenomena. The successful practical use of mathematics suggests that mathematics are "sufficient" to describe the "necessary" physical states (densities) and behaviors of physical objects.