This Day In History

18 June Events

618 – Li Yuan becomes Emperor Gaozu of Tang, initiating three centuries of Tang Dynasty rule over China.
1053 – Battle of Civitate: Three thousand horsemen of Norman Count Humphrey rout the troops of Pope Leo IX.
1178 – Five Canterbury monks see what is possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed. It is believed that the current oscillations of the Moon's distance from the Earth (on the order of meters) are a result of this collision.
1264 – The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitively known meeting of this Irish legislature.
1429 – French forces under the leadership of Joan of Arc defeat the main English army under Sir John Fastolf at the Battle of Patay. This turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War.
1633 – Charles I, is crowned King of Scots at St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh
1684 – The charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony is revoked via a scire facias writ issued by an English court.
1757 – Battle of Kolín between Prussian forces under Frederick the Great and an Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Count Leopold Joseph von Daun in the Seven Years' War.
1767 – Samuel Wallis, an English sea captain, sights Tahiti and is considered the first European to reach the island.
1778 – American Revolutionary War: British troops abandon Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1799 – Action of 18 June 1799: A frigate squadron under Rear-admiral Perrée is captured by the British fleet under Lord Keith
1812 – War of 1812: The U.S. Congress declares war on Great Britain, Canada, and Ireland.
1815 – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Waterloo results in the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher forcing him to abdicate the throne of France for the second and last time.
1830 – French invasion of Algeria.
1858 – Charles Darwin receives a paper from Alfred Russel Wallace that includes nearly identical conclusions about evolution as Darwin's own, prompting Darwin to publish his theory.
1859 – First ascent of Aletschhorn, second summit of the Bernese Alps.
1873 – Susan B. Anthony is fined $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election.
1887 – The Reinsurance Treaty between Germany and Russia is signed.
1900 – Empress Dowager Longyu of China orders all foreigners killed, including foreign diplomats and their families.
1908 – Japanese immigration to Brazil begins when 781 people arrive in Santos aboard the ship Kasato-Maru.
1908 – The University of the Philippines is established.
1923 – Checker Taxi puts its first taxi on the streets.
1928 – Aviator Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly in an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean (she is a passenger; Wilmer Stultz is the pilot and Lou Gordon the mechanic).
1930 – Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Franklin Institute are held.
1934 - US Highway planning surveys nationwide authorized
1935 – Police in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada clash with striking longshoremen, resulting in a total 60 injuries and 24 arrests.
1940 – Appeal of June 18 by Charles de Gaulle.
1940 – "Finest Hour" speech by Winston Churchill.
1945 – William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) is charged with treason for his pro-German propaganda broadcasting during World War II.
1946 – Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, a Socialist, calls for a Direct Action Day against the Portuguese in Goa. A road is named after this date in Panjim.
1953 – The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 ends with the overthrow of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the declaration of the Republic of Egypt.
1953 – A United States Air Force C-124 crashes and burns near Tachikawa, Japan, killing 129.
1954 – Pierre Mendès-France becomes Prime Minister of France.
1959 - 1st telecast transmitted from England to US
1959 - Governor of Louisiana Earl K. Long is committed to a state mental hospital; he responds by having the hospital's director fired and replaced with a crony who proceeds to proclaim him perfectly sane.
1961 - CBS radio cancels Gunsmoke
1961 - KBMT TV channel 12 in Beaumont, TX (ABC) begins broadcasting
1961 - Mary Lena Faulk wins LPGA Eastern Golf Open
1965 – Vietnam War: The United States uses B-52 bombers to attack National Liberation Front guerrilla fighters in South Vietnam.
1967 - 67th US Golf Open: Jack Nicklaus shoots 275 at Baltusrol GC NJ
1967 - Houston Don Wilson no-hits Atlanta Braves, 2-0
1967 - Monterey International Pop Festival rocks Southern California
1967 - Susie Maxwell wins LPGA Milwaukee Jaycee Golf Open
1968 - Supreme Court bans racial discrimination in sale & rental of housing
1972 – Staines air disaster: One hundred eighteen are killed when a BEA H.S. Trident crashes two minutes after take off from London Heathrow Airport.
1979 – SALT II is signed by the United States and the Soviet Union.
1981 – The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, the first operational aircraft initially designed around stealth technology, makes its first flight.
1983 – Space Shuttle program: STS-7, Astronaut Sally Ride becomes the first American woman in space.
1983 – Mona Mahmudnizhad together with nine other Bahá'í women, is sentenced to death and hanged in Shiraz, Iran because of her Bahá'í Faith.
1984 – A major clash between about 5,000 police and a similar number of miners takes place at Orgreave, South Yorkshire, during the 1984–1985 UK miners' strike.
1994 – The Troubles: Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) attack a crowded pub with assault rifles in Loughinisland, Northern Ireland. Six Catholic civilians are killed and five wounded. It was crowded with people watching the 1994 FIFA World Cup.
1996 – Ted Kaczynski, suspected of being the Unabomber, is indicted on ten criminal counts.
2006 – The first Kazakh space satellite, KazSat is launched.
2007 – The Charleston Sofa Super Store fire happened in Charleston, South Carolina killing nine firefighters.
2009 – The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a NASA robotic spacecraft is launched.
2012 – Salman bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud is appointed Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia.

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18 June Births

1269 – Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar (d. 1298)
1318 – Eleanor of Woodstock (d. 1355)
1466 – Ottaviano Petrucci, Italian printer (d. 1539)
1511 – Bartolomeo Ammannati, Italian architect and sculptor, designed the Ponte Santa Trinita (d. 1592)
1517 – Emperor Ōgimachi of Japan (d. 1593)
1667 – Ivan Trubetskoy, Russian field marshal (d. 1750)
1673 – Antoni Lliteres Carrió, Spanish composer (d. 1747)
1677 – Antonio Maria Bononcini, Italian cellist and composer (d. 1726)
1716 – Joseph-Marie Vien, French painter (d. 1809)
1717 – Johann Stamitz, Czech violinist and composer (d. 1757)
1757 – Ignaz Pleyel, Austrian-French composer and piano manufacturer (d. 1831)
1757 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, Argentinian lawyer and politician (d. 1833)
1769 – Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Irish-English politician (d. 1822)
1812 – Ivan Goncharov, Russian author (d. 1891)
1815 – Ludwig Freiherr von und zu der Tann-Rathsamhausen, German general (d. 1881)
1834 – Auguste-Théodore-Paul de Broglie, French philosopher (d. 1895)
1839 – William H. Seward, Jr., American general (d. 1920)
1845 – Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, French physician, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1922)
1850 – Richard Heuberger, Austrian composer and critic (d. 1914)
1854 – E. W. Scripps, American publisher, founded the E. W. Scripps Company (d. 1926)
1857 – Henry Clay Folger, American businessman and philanthropist, founded the Folger Shakespeare Library (d. 1930)
1863 – George Essex Evans, English-Australian poet (d. 1909)
1868 – Miklós Horthy, Hungarian admiral, Regent of Hungary (d. 1957)
1870 – Édouard Le Roy, French mathematician and philosopher (d. 1954)
1877 – James Montgomery Flagg, American painter and illustrator (d. 1960)
1881 – Zoltán Halmay, Hungarian swimmer (d. 1956)
1882 – Georgi Dimitrov, Bulgarian politician, 32nd Prime Minister of Bulgaria (d. 1949)
1884 – Édouard Daladier, French politician, Prime Minister of France (d. 1970)
1886 – George Mallory, English mountaineer (d. 1924)
1886 – Alexander Wetmore, American ornithologist and paleontologist (d. 1978)
1887 – Tancrède Labbé, Canadian politician and businessman (d. 1956)
1891 – Mae Busch, Australian-American actress (d. 1946)
1895 – Manuela Fernández-Fojaco, Spanish super-centenarian (d. 2009)
1896 – Blanche Sweet, American actress (d. 1986)
1901 – Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (d. 1918)
1901 – Llewellyn Rees, English actor (b. 1994)
1903 – Jeanette MacDonald, American actress and singer (d. 1965)
1903 – Raymond Radiguet, French author (d. 1923)
1904 – Keye Luke, Chinese-American actor (d. 1991)
1904 – Manuel Rosenthal, French conductor and composer (d. 2003)
1905 – Eduard Tubin, Estonian composer and conductor (d. 1982)
1907 – Frithjof Schuon, Swiss-American metaphysicist, philosopher, and author (d. 1998)
1908 – Bud Collyer, American actor and game show host (d. 1969)
1908 – Stanley Knowles, American-Canadian politician (d. 1997)
1908 – Nedra Volz, American actress (d. 2003)
1910 – Dick Foran, American actor and singer (d. 1979)
1910 – Ray McKinley, American singer, drummer, and bandleader (Glenn Miller Orchestra) (d. 1995)
1912 – Glenn Morris, American decathlete and actor (d. 1974)
1913 – Wilfred Gordon Bigelow, Canadian surgeon (d. 2005)
1913 – Sammy Cahn, American songwriter (d. 1993)
1913 – Sylvia Porter, American economist and journalist (d. 1991)
1913 – Françoise Loranger, Canadian playwright and producer (d. 1995)
1913 – Robert Mondavi, American winemaker (d. 2008)
1914 – E. G. Marshall, American actor (d. 1998)
1915 – Red Adair, American firefighter (d. 2004)
1915 – Robert Kanigher, American author (d. 2002)
1916 – Julio César Turbay Ayala, Colombian politician, 25th President of Colombia (d. 2005)
1917 – Richard Boone, American actor, singer, and director (d. 1981)
1917 – Jack Karnehm, English sportscaster (d. 2002)
1917 – Erik Ortvad, Danish painter (d. 2008)
1917 – Arthur Tremblay, Canadian politician (d. 1996)
1918 – Jerome Karle, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
1918 – Franco Modigliani, Italian-American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
1919 – Jüri Järvet, Estonian actor (d. 1995)
1920 – Ian Carmichael, English actor (d. 2010)
1920 – John B. Heilman, American politician (d. 2013)
1920 – Matthew Ianniello, American mobster (d. 2012)
1922 – Claude Helffer, French pianist (d. 2004)
1923 – Jean Delumeau, French historian
1924 – George Mikan, American basketball player and coach (d. 2005)
1925 – Robert Arthur, American actor (d. 2008)
1925 – Robert Beadell, American composer (d. 1994)
1926 – Philip B. Crosby, American businessman and author (d. 2001)
1926 – Allan Sandage, American astronomer (d. 2010)
1926 – Tom Wicker, American journalist (d. 2011)
1927 – Eva Bartok, Hungarian-English actress (d. 1998)
1927 – Paul Eddington, English actor (d. 1995)
1928 – Michael Blakemore, Australian director
1928 – David T. Lykken, American geneticist (d. 2006)
1929 – Jürgen Habermas, German sociologist and philosopher
1931 – Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Brazilian politician, 34th President of Brazil
1931 – K. S. Sudarshan, Indian nationalist (d. 2012)
1932 – Dudley R. Herschbach, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
1932 – Geoffrey Hill, English poet and educator
1934 – Brian Kenny, British Army officer
1934 – Mitsuteru Yokoyama, Japanese illustrator (d. 2004)
1935 – Hugh McColl, American banker
1936 – Denny Hulme, New Zealand race car driver (d. 1992)
1936 – Barack Obama, Sr., Kenyan economist (d. 1982)
1936 – Ronald Venetiaan, Surinamese politician, 6th President of Suriname
1937 – Wray Carlton, American football player
1937 – Del Harris, American basketball player and coach
1937 – Jay Rockefeller, American politician
1937 – Bruce Trigger, Canadian archaeologist, anthropologist and historian (d. 2006)
1937 – Vitaly Zholobov, Ukrainian colonel, engineer, and astronaut
1938 – Eddie Jones, American businessman (d. 2012)
1938 – Kevin Murray, Australian footballer and coach
1939 – Lou Brock, American baseball player
1939 – Jean-Claude Germain, Canadian author, journalist, and historian
1939 – Brooks Firestone, American businessman and politician
1940 – Michael Sheard, Scottish-English actor (d. 2005)
1941 – Paul Mayersberg, English writer
1941 – Delia Smith, English chef and author
1942 – John Bellany, Scottish painter (d. 2013)
1942 – Roger Ebert, American journalist, critic, and screenwriter (d. 2013)
1942 – Pat Hutchins, English children's writer and illustrator
1942 – Thabo Mbeki, South African politician, 23rd President of South Africa
1942 – Paul McCartney, English musician, singer and songwriter (The Quarrymen, the Beatles, Wings and the Fireman)
1942 – Carl Radle, American bass player and producer (Delaney & Bonnie and Derek and the Dominos) (d. 1980)
1942 – Nick Tate, Australian actor
1942 – Hans Vonk, Dutch conductor (d. 2004)
1943 – Raffaella Carrà, Italian singer, dancer, and actress
1944 – Sandy Posey, American singer
1946 – Russell Ash, English author
1946 – Bruiser Brody, American wrestler (d. 1988)
1946 – Fabio Capello, Italian footballer and manager
1946 – Luan Peters, English actress
1946 – Gordon Murray, South African race car designer
1947 – Ivonne Coll, Puerto Rican model and actress, Miss Puerto Rico 1967
1947 – Bernard Giraudeau, French actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2010)
1947 – Linda Thorson, Canadian actress
1948 – Philip Jackson, English actor
1948 – Eliezer Halfin, Israeli wrestler (d. 1972)
1948 – Éva Marton, Hungarian soprano
1949 – Chris Van Allsburg, American author and illustrator
1949 – Jarosław Kaczyński, Polish lawyer and politician, 13th Prime Minister of Poland
1949 – Lech Kaczyński, Polish lawyer and politician, 4th President of Poland (d. 2010)
1949 – Lincoln Thompson, Jamaican singer-songwriter (The Tartans) (d. 1999)
1950 – Mike Johanns, American politician, 38th Governor of Nebraska
1950 – Jackie Leven, Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist (Doll by Doll) (d. 2011)
1951 – Mohammed Al-Sager, Kuwaiti journalist and politician
1951 – Ian Hargreaves, British journalist
1951 – Stephen Hopper, Australian botanist
1951 – Gyula Sax, Hungarian chess player (d. 2014)
1952 – Tiiu Aro, Estonian physician and politician
1952 – Denis Herron, Canadian ice hockey player
1952 – Carol Kane, American actress, director, and screenwriter
1952 – Isabella Rossellini, Italian actress
1952 – Lee Soo-man, South Korean singer and businessman, founded S.M. Entertainment
1953 – Raimo Aas, Estonian radio host
1953 – Derek Deane, British choreographer
1953 – Peter Donohoe, English classical pianist
1953 – Vladislav Terzyul, Ukrainian mountaineer (d. 2004)
1955 – Ed Fast, Canadian lawyer and politician
1956 – Brian Benben, American actor
1957 – Ralph Brown, English actor
1957 – Ray Cochrane, Northern Irish jockey and sports agent
1957 – Andrea Evans, American actress
1957 – Miguel Ángel Lotina, Spanish footballer and manager
1957 – Richard Powers, American author
1958 – Peter Altmaier, German politician
1960 – Barbara Broccoli, American film producer
1960 – Steve Murphy, Canadian journalist
1961 – Oz Fox, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Stryper, SinDizzy, and Bloodgood)
1961 – Andrés Galarraga, Venezuelan-American baseball player
1961 – Angela Johnson, American author and poet
1961 – Alison Moyet, English singer-songwriter (Yazoo and The Vandals)
1962 – Jeff Mills, American DJ and producer (Underground Resistance)
1962 – Mitsuharu Misawa, Japanese wrestler (d. 2009)
1962 – Lisa Randall, American physicist
1963 – Dizzy Reed, American keyboard player, songwriter, and actor (Guns N' Roses and Johnny Crash)
1963 – Bruce Smith, American football player
1964 – Uday Hussein, Iraqi son of Saddam Hussein (d. 2003)
1964 – Patti Webster, American publicist (d. 2013)
1965 – Kim Dickens, American actress
1966 – Kurt Browning, Canadian figure skater
1968 – Frank Müller, German decathlete
1969 – Haki Doku, Albanian cyclist
1969 – Christopher Largen, American journalist and author
1969 – Vito LoGrasso, American wrestler
1970 – Robin Christopher, American actress
1970 – Katie Derham, English television newsreader and presenter
1970 – Ivan Kozák, Slovak footballer
1970 – Greg Yaitanes, American director and producer
1971 – Kerry Butler, American actress and singer
1971 – Mara Hobel, American actress
1971 – Gaute Kivistik, Estonian humorist and journalist
1971 – Jason McAteer, English-Irish footballer and manager
1971 – Nathan Morris, American singer (Boyz II Men)
1972 – Anu Tali, Estonian conductor
1972 – Wikus du Toit, South African actor, director, and composer
1972 – Michal Yannai, Israeli actress
1973 – Julie Depardieu, French actress
1973 – Ray LaMontagne, American singer-songwriter
1973 – Alexandros Papadimitriou, Greek hammer thrower
1974 – Vincenzo Montella, Italian footballer and manager
1974 – Kenan İmirzalıoğlu, Turkish actor
1975 – Jem, Welsh singer-songwriter and producer
1975 – Jamel Debbouze, French-Moroccan actor and producer
1975 – Marie Gillain, Belgian actress
1975 – Aleksandrs Koļinko, Latvian footballer
1975 – Martin St. Louis, Canadian ice hockey player
1976 – Alana de la Garza, American actress
1976 – Blake Shelton, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1976 – Witte Wartena, Dutch illustrator
1977 – Evelin Talts, Estonian runner
1978 – Wang Liqin, Chinese table tennis player
1979 – Yumiko Kobayashi, Japanese voice actress
1979 – Ivana Wong, Hong Kong singer-songwriter
1980 – Antonio Gates, American football player
1980 – David Giuntoli, American actor
1980 – Craig Mottram, Australian runner
1980 – Colin Munroe, Canadian singer-songwriter and producer
1980 – Antero Niittymäki, Finnish ice hockey player
1980 – Tara Platt, American actress
1980 – Imre Tiitsu, Estonian ice sledge hockey player
1981 – Ella Chen, Taiwanese singer and actress (S.H.E)
1981 – Teresa Cormack, New Zealand murder victim (d. 1987)
1981 – Marco Streller, Swiss footballer
1982 – Nadir Belhadj, French-Algerian footballer
1982 – Marco Borriello, Italian footballer
1983 – Billy Slater, Australian rugby player
1983 – Cameron Smith, Australian rugby player
1984 – Nanyak Dala, Canadian rugby player
1984 – Janne Happonen, Finnish ski jumper
1984 – Kissy Sell Out, English DJ and producer
1984 – Ronnie Stam, Dutch footballer
1985 – Chris Coghlan, American baseball player
1985 – Gia Johnson, English model
1985 – Alex Hirsch, American storyboard artist, television producer, writer, and voice actor, creator of Disney's Gravity Falls
1986 – Edgars Eriņš, Latvian decathlete
1986 – Richard Gasquet, French tennis player
1986 – Richard Madden, Scottish actor
1987 – Omar Arellano, Mexican footballer
1987 – Melanie Iglesias, American model and actress
1988 – Elini Dimoutsos, Greek footballer
1989 – Renee Olstead, American actress and singer
1990 – Luke Adam, Canadian ice hockey player
1990 – Sandra Izbaşa, Romanian gymnast
1990 – Christian Taylor, American triple jumper
1990 – Mitsuki Tanimura, Japanese actress
1991 – Willa Holland, American actress
1991 – Rei Okamoto, Japanese model and actress
1997 – Max Records, American actor
2006 – Countess Zaria of Orange-Nassau, Jonkvrouwe van Amsberg

Jun 18, 1812:
War of 1812 begins

The day after the Senate followed the House of Representatives in voting to declare war against Great Britain, President James Madison signs the declaration into law--and the War of 1812 begins. The American war declaration, opposed by a sizable minority in Congress, had been called in response to the British economic blockade of France, the induction of American seaman into the British Royal Navy against their will, and the British support of hostile Indian tribes along the Great Lakes frontier. A faction of Congress known as the "War Hawks" had been advocating war with Britain for several years and had not hidden their hopes that a U.S. invasion of Canada might result in significant territorial land gains for the United States.

In the months after President Madison proclaimed the state of war to be in effect, American forces launched a three-point invasion of Canada, all of which were decisively unsuccessful. In 1814, with Napoleon Bonaparte's French Empire collapsing, the British were able to allocate more military resources to the American war, and Washington, D.C., fell to the British in August. In Washington, British troops burned the White House, the Capitol, and other buildings in retaliation for the earlier burning of government buildings in Canada by U.S. soldiers.

In September, the tide of the war turned when Thomas Macdonough's American naval force won a decisive victory at the Battle of Plattsburg Bay on Lake Champlain. The invading British army was forced to retreat back into Canada. The American victory on Lake Champlain led to the conclusion of U.S.-British peace negotiations in Belgium, and on December 24, 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed, formally ending the War of 1812. By the terms of the agreement, all conquered territory was to be returned, and a commission would be established to settle the boundary of the United States and Canada.

British forces assailing the Gulf Coast were not informed of the treaty in time, and on January 8, 1815, the U.S. forces under Andrew Jackson achieved the greatest American victory of the war at the Battle of New Orleans. The American public heard of Jackson's victory and the Treaty of Ghent at approximately the same time, fostering a greater sentiment of self-confidence and shared identity throughout the young republic

18 June Deaths

741 – Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine emperor (b. 685)
1234 – Emperor Chūkyō of Japan (b. 1218)
1291 – Alfonso III of Aragon (b. 1265)
1464 – Rogier van der Weyden, Flemish painter (b. 1400)
1588 – Robert Crowley, English poet (b. 1517)
1629 – Piet Pieterszoon Hein, Dutch admiral (b. 1577)
1650 – Christoph Scheiner, German priest, physicist, and astronomer (b. 1575)
1673 – Jeanne Mance, French-Canadian nurse, founder the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal (b. 1606)
1704 – Tom Brown, English author (b. 1662)
1726 – Michel Richard Delalande, French organist and composer (b. 1657)
1742 – John Aislabie, English politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (b. 1670)
1749 – Ambrose Philips, English poet (b. 1674)
1772 – Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German jurist and scholar (b. 1706)
1772 – Gerard van Swieten, Dutch-Austrian physician (b. 1700)
1788 – Adam Gib, Scottish religious leader (b. 1714)
1794 – François Buzot, French politician (b. 1760)
1794 – James Murray, Scottish-English general and politician (b. 1721)
1815 – Thomas Picton, Welsh general (b. 1758)
1833 – Robert Hett Chapman, American minister, missionary, and academic (b. 1771)
1835 – William Cobbett, English farmer and journalist (b. 1763)
1866 – Prince Sigismund of Prussia (b. 1864)
1902 – Samuel Butler, English author and poet (b. 1835)
1905 – Carmine Crocco, Italian soldier (b. 1830)
1915 – Eufemio Zapata, Mexican brother of Emiliano Zapata (b. 1873)
1916 – Max Immelmann, German pilot (b. 1890)
1917 – Titu Maiorescu, Romanian critic and politician, 23rd Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1840)
1922 – Jacobus Kapteyn, Dutch astronomer (b. 1851)
1928 – Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer (b. 1872)
1936 – Maxim Gorky, Russian author (b. 1868)
1937 – Gaston Doumergue, French politician, 13th President of France (b. 1863)
1942 – Arthur Pryor, American trombonist, bandleader, and politician (b. 1870)
1943 – Elias Degiannis, Greek navy officer (b. 1912)
1945 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr., American general (b. 1886)
1947 – Shigematsu Sakaibara, Japanese admiral (b. 1898)
1952 – Heinrich Schlusnus, German singer (b. 1888)
1959 – Ethel Barrymore, American actress (b. 1879)
1963 – Pedro Armendáriz, Mexican-American actor (b. 1912)
1967 – Geki, Italian race car driver (b. 1937)
1967 – Beat Fehr, Swiss race car driver (b. 1942)
1971 – Thomas Gomez, American actor (b. 1905)
1971 – Paul Karrer, Swiss chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1889)
1973 – Roger Delgado, English actor (b. 1918)
1974 – Júlio César de Mello e Souza, Brazilian mathematician and author (b. 1896)
1974 – Georgy Zhukov, Russian marshal and politician, Minister of Defence for the Soviet Union (b. 1896)
1975 – Hugo Bergmann, German-Israeli philosopher (b. 1883)
1978 – Walter C. Alvarez, American physician (b. 1884)
1980 – Terence Fisher, English director and screenwriter (b. 1904)
1980 – André Leducq, French cyclist (b. 1904)
1982 – Djuna Barnes, American author (b. 1892)
1982 – John Cheever, American author (b. 1912)
1982 – Curd Jürgens, German-Austrian actor and director (b. 1915)
1984 – Alan Berg, American lawyer and radio host (b. 1934)
1985 – Paul Colin, French illustrator (b. 1892)
1986 – Frances Scott Fitzgerald, American journalist and author (b. 1921)
1989 – I. F. Stone, American journalist (b. 1907)
1992 – Peter Allen, Australian singer-songwriter and pianist (b. 1944)
1992 – Mordecai Ardon, Israeli painter (b. 1896)
1997 – Lev Kopelev, Russian author (b. 1912)
2000 – Nancy Marchand, American actress (b. 1928)
2002 – Jack Buck, American sportscaster (b. 1924)
2003 – Larry Doby, American baseball player and manager (b. 1923)
2003 – Ernest Martin, American murderer (b. 1960)
2004 – Abdel Aziz al-Muqrin, Saudi Arabian terrorist (b. 1972)
2005 – Mushtaq Ali, Indian cricketer (b. 1914)
2005 – Manuel Sadosky, Argentinian mathematician (b. 1914)
2006 – Vincent Sherman, American actor, director, and screenwriter (b. 1906)
2007 – Bernard Manning, English comedian (b. 1930)
2007 – Hank Medress, American singer and producer (The Tokens) (b. 1938)
2007 – Georges Thurston, Canadian singer-songwriter (b. 1951)
2008 – Jean Delannoy, French actor, director, and screenwriter (b. 1908)
2008 – Miyuki Kanbe, Japanese actor (b. 1984)
2008 – Tasha Tudor, American author and illustrator (b. 1915)
2010 – Trent Acid, American wrestler (b. 1980)
2010 – José Saramago, Portuguese author, poet, playwright, and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1922)
2011 – Yelena Bonner, Russian activist (b. 1923)
2011 – Frederick Chiluba, Zambian politician, 2nd President of Zambia (b. 1943)
2011 – Clarence Clemons, American saxophonist and actor (E Street Band) (b. 1942)
2012 – Gerry Bron, English record producer and manager (b. 1933)
2012 – Horacio Coppola, Argentinian photographer and director (b. 1906)
2012 – Lina Haag, German activist (b. 1907)
2012 – Ghazala Javed, Pakistani singer (b. 1988)
2012 – Tom Maynard, Welsh cricketer (b. 1989)
2012 – Luis Edgardo Mercado Jarrín, Peruvian politician, 109th Prime Minister of Peru (b. 1919)
2012 – Jim Packard, American radio host and producer (b. 1942)
2012 – Alketas Panagoulias, Greek footballer and manager (b. 1934)
2012 – Salem Ali Qatan, Yemeni military officer
2012 – Victor Spinetti, Welsh actor (b. 1929)
2012 – William Van Regenmorter, American politician (b. 1939)
2013 – Brent F. Anderson, American engineer and politician (b. 1932)
2013 – Alastair Donaldson, Scottish bass player (The Rezillos and Silly Wizard) (b. 1955)
2013 – Vernon Fougère, Canadian bishop (b. 1943)
2013 – Garde Gardom, Canadian lawyer and politician, 26th Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia (b. 1924)
2013 – Michael Hastings, American journalist (b. 1980)
2013 – Dave Petitjean, American actor (b. 1928)
2013 – Claudio Rocchi, Italian singer-songwriter and bass player (Stormy Six) (b. 1951)
2013 – Colin Stansfield Smith, English architect and academic (b. 1932)
2013 – David Wall, English ballet dancer (b. 1946)

19 June Events

1179 – The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Earl Erling Skakke is killed, and the battle changes the tide of the civil wars.
1269 – King Louis IX of France orders all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver.
1306 – The Earl of Pembroke's army defeats Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.
1586 – English colonists leave Roanoke Island, after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in North America.
1816 – Battle of Seven Oaks between North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
1821 – Decisive defeat of the Philikí Etaireía by the Ottomans at Drăgăşani (in Wallachia).
1846 – The first officially recorded, organized baseball game is played under Alexander Cartwright's rules on Hoboken, New Jersey's Elysian Fields with the New York Base Ball Club defeating the Knickerbockers 23-1. Cartwright umpired.
1850 – Princess Louise of the Netherlands marries Crown Prince Karl of Sweden-Norway.
1862 – The U.S. Congress prohibits slavery in United States territories, nullifying Dred Scott v. Sandford.
1865 – Over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Galveston, Texas, United States, are finally informed of their freedom. The anniversary is still officially celebrated in Texas and 41 other contiguous states as Juneteenth.
1867 – Maximilian I of the Second Mexican Empire is executed by a firing squad in Querétaro, Querétaro.
1875 – The Herzegovinian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire begins.
1910 – The first Father's Day is celebrated in Spokane, Washington.
1911 – the Norwegian football club Molde FK was founded.
1913 – Natives' Land Act in South Africa implemented.
1934 – The Communications Act of 1934 establishes the United States' Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
1944 – World War II: First day of the Battle of the Philippine Sea.
1953 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed at Sing Sing, in New York.
1961 – Kuwait declares independence from the United Kingdom.
1964 – The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the United States Senate.
1965 – Nguyen Cao Ky becomes Prime Minister of South Vietnam at the head of a military junta; General Nguyen Van Thieu becomes the figurehead chief of state.
1966 – Shiv Sena a political party in India is founded in Mumbai.
1970 – The Patent Cooperation Treaty is signed.
1978 – Garfield, holder of the Guinness World Record for the world's most widely syndicated comic strip, makes its debut.
1982 – In one of the first militant attacks by Hezbollah, David S. Dodge, president of the American University in Beirut, is kidnapped.
1982 – The body of "God's Banker," Roberto Calvi, is found hanging beneath Blackfriars Bridge in London.
1985 – Members of the Revolutionary Party of Central American Workers, dressed as Salvadoran soldiers, attack the Zona Rosa area of San Salvador.
1990 – The current international law defending indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, is ratified for the first time by Norway.
1990 – The Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic is founded in Moscow.
1991 – The Soviet occupation of Hungary ends.
2009 – Mass riots involving over 10,000 people and 10,000 police officers break out in Shishou, China, over the dubious circumstances surrounding the death of a local chef.
2009 – War in North-West Pakistan: The Pakistani Armed Forces open Operation Rah-e-Nijat against the Taliban and other Islamist rebels in the South Waziristan area of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

Jun 19, 1953:
Rosenbergs executed

On this day in 1953, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, who were convicted of conspiring to pass U.S. atomic secrets to the Soviets, are executed at Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, New York. Both refused to admit any wrongdoing and proclaimed their innocence right up to the time of their deaths, by the electric chair. The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens to be convicted and executed for espionage during peacetime and their case remains controversial to this day.

Julius Rosenberg was an engineer for the U.S. Army Signal Corps who was born in New York on May 12, 1918. His wife, born Ethel Greenglass, also in New York, on September 28, 1915, worked as a secretary. The couple met as members of the Young Communist League, married in 1939 and had two sons. Julius Rosenberg was arrested on suspicion of espionage on June 17, 1950, and accused of heading a spy ring that passed top-secret information concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Ethel was arrested two months later. The Rosenbergs were implicated by David Greenglass, Ethel's younger brother and a former army sergeant and machinist at Los Alamos, the secret atomic bomb lab in New Mexico. Greenglass, who himself had confessed to providing nuclear secrets to the Soviets through an intermediary, testified against his sister and brother-in-law in court. He later served 10 years in prison.

The Rosenbergs vigorously protested their innocence, but after a brief trial that began on March 6, 1951, and attracted much media attention, the couple was convicted. On April 5, 1951, a judge sentenced them to death and the pair was taken to Sing Sing to await execution.

During the next two years, the couple became the subject of both national and international debate. Some people believed that the Rosenbergs were the victims of a surge of hysterical anti-communist feeling in the United States, and protested that the death sentence handed down was cruel and unusual punishment. Many Americans, however, believed that the Rosenbergs had been dealt with justly. They agreed with President Dwight D. Eisenhower when he issued a statement declining to invoke executive clemency for the pair. He stated, "I can only say that, by immeasurably increasing the chances of atomic war, the Rosenbergs may have condemned to death tens of millions of innocent people all over the world. The execution of two human beings is a grave matter. But even graver is the thought of the millions of dead whose deaths may be directly attributable to what these spies have done."

Jun 19, 1892:
A bloody fingerprint elicits a mother's evil tale in Argentina

Francesca Rojas' two young children are killed in their home in the small town of Necochea, Argentina. According to Rojas, a man named Velasquez had threatened her when she rejected his sexual advances earlier in the day. Upon returning home later, Rojas claimed to have seen Velasquez escaping out her open door. Once inside, she found both her six-year-old boy and four-year-old girl stabbed to death.

Police arrested and questioned Velasquez, but he denied any involvement, even after some rather painful interrogation techniques were used to obtain a confession. Law enforcement officials even tried tying him to the corpses of the children overnight. When that didn't produce any results, Velasquez was tortured for another week. Still, he maintained his innocence throughout the ordeal.

Juan Vucetich, in charge of criminal identification at the regional headquarters, had been intrigued by the new theories of fingerprint identification and sent an investigator to see if the methods could help crack the case. Until then, the only other method of identification was the Bertillonage, named after its inventor, Alphonse Bertillon, who worked for the Paris police. This method involved the recording of body measurements in more than 11 different places. In an age when photography was very expensive, Bertillonage gave police their best chance of definitively identifying a person.

When the investigator examined Rojas's house, he found a bloody thumb print on the bedroom door. Rojas was then asked to provide an ink-print of her thumb at the police station. Even with only a rudimentary understanding of forensic identification, investigators were able to determine that the print on the door belonged to Rojas. Using this new piece of evidence against her, detectives were able to exact her confession.

Apparently, Rojas had killed her own children in an attempt to improve her chance of marrying her boyfriend, who was known to dislike children, and then pegged the crime on Velasquez. She was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Jun 19, 1905:
First nickelodeon opens

On this day in 1905, some 450 people attend the opening day of the world’s first nickelodeon, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and developed by the showman Harry Davis. The storefront theater boasted 96 seats and charged each patron five cents. Nickelodeons (named for a combination of the admission cost and the Greek word for “theater”) soon spread across the country. Their usual offerings included live vaudeville acts as well as short films. By 1907, some 2 million Americans had visited a nickelodeon, and the storefront theaters remained the main outlet for films until they were replaced around 1910 by large modern theaters.

Inventors in Europe and the United States, including Thomas Edison, had been developing movie cameras since the late 1880s. Early films could only be viewed as peep shows, but by the late 1890s movies could be projected onto a screen. Audiences were beginning to attend public demonstrations, and several movie “factories” (as the earliest production studios were called) were formed. In 1896, the Edison Company inaugurated the era of commercial movies, showing a collection of moving images as a minor act in a vaudeville show that also included live performers, among whom were a Russian clown, an “eccentric dancer” and a “gymnastic comedian.” The film, shown at Koster and Bial’s Music Hall in New York City, featured images of dancers, ocean waves and gondolas.

Short films, usually less than a minute long, became a regular part of vaudeville shows at the turn of the century as “chasers” to clear out the audience after a show. A vaudeville performers’ strike in 1901, however, left theaters scrambling for acts, and movies became the main event. In the earliest years, vaudeville theater owners had to purchase films from factories via mail order, rather than renting them, which made it expensive to change shows frequently. Starting in 1902, Henry Miles of San Francisco began renting films to theaters, forming the basis of today’s distribution system. The first theater devoted solely to films, The Electric Theater in Los Angeles, opened in 1902. Housed in a tent, the theater’s first screening included a short called New York in a Blizzard. Admission cost about 10 cents for a one-hour show. Nickelodeons developed soon after, offering both movies and live acts.

19 June Births

1301 – Prince Morikuni of Japan (d. 1333)
1566 – James VI and I of England (d. 1625)
1606 – James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton, Scottish military leader and politician (d. 1649)
1623 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and physicist (d. 1662)
1633 – Philipp van Limborch, Dutch theologian (d. 1712)
1701 – François Rebel, French violinist and composer (d. 1775)
1708 – Johann Gottlieb Janitsch, German composer (d. 1763)
1731 – Joaquim Machado de Castro, Portuguese sculptor (d. 1822)
1764 – José Gervasio Artigas, Uruguayan general (d. 1850)
1771 – Joseph Diaz Gergonne, French mathematician (d. 1859)
1792 – Gustav Schwab, German author (d. 1850)
1795 – James Braid, Scottish surgeon (d. 1860)
1815 – Cornelius Krieghoff, Canadian painter (d. 1872)
1816 – William H. Webb, American shipbuilder and philanthropist, founded the Webb Institute (d. 1899)
1834 – Charles Spurgeon, British preacher (d. 1892)
1846 – Antonio Abetti, Italian astronomer (d. 1928)
1850 – David Jayne Hill, American historian and politician, 24th United States Assistant Secretary of State (d. 1932)
1851 – Billy Midwinter, English-Australian cricketer (d. 1890)
1854 – Alfredo Catalani, Italian composer (d. 1893)
1858 – Sam Walter Foss, American poet (d. 1911)
1861 – Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, British field marshal (d. 1928)
1861 – José Rizal, Filipino polymath (d. 1896)
1865 – May Whitty, British actress (d. 1948)
1872 – Theodore Payne, English horticulturist (d. 1963)
1874 – Peder Oluf Pedersen, Danish physicist and engineer (d. 1941)
1876 – Nigel Gresley, British Steam Locomotive engineer (d. 1941)
1877 – Charles Coburn, American actor and singer (d. 1961)
1884 – Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, French painter (d. 1974)
1893 – Madeleine Astor, American survivor of the Sinking of the RMS Titanic (d. 1940)
1896 – Rajani Palme Dutt, British journalist and communist politician (d. 1974)
1896 – Wallis Simpson, American wife of Edward VIII (d. 1986)
1897 – Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)
1897 – Moe Howard, American actor, singer, and screenwriter (d. 1975)
1898 – James Joseph Sweeney, American bishop (d. 1968)
1900 – Laura Z. Hobson, American author (d. 1986)
1902 – Guy Lombardo, Canadian-American violinist and bandleader (d. 1977)
1903 – Lou Gehrig, American baseball player (d. 1941)
1903 – Wally Hammond, English cricketer (d. 1965)
1903 – Hans Litten, German lawyer (d. 1938)
1905 – Mildred Natwick, American actress (d. 1994)
1906 – Ernst Boris Chain, German-English biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1979)
1906 – Knut Kroon, Swedish footballer (d. 1975)
1906 – Walter Rauff, German SS officer (d. 1984)
1907 – Clarence Wiseman, Canadian 10th General of the Salvation Army (d. 1985)
1909 – Osamu Dazai, Japanese author (d. 1948)
1909 – Midori Naka, Japanese actress (d. 1945)
1910 – Paul Flory, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1985)
1910 – Abe Fortas, American jurist (d. 1982)
1912 – Don Gutteridge, American baseball player and manager (d. 2008)
1912 – Virginia MacWatters, American soprano (d. 2005)
1914 – Alan Cranston, American journalist and politician (d. 2000)
1914 – Lester Flatt, American singer-songwriter and musician (d. 1979)
1914 – Morgan Morgan-Giles, English admiral and politician (d. 2013)
1914 – Anthony of Sourozh, Swiss-English bishop (d. 2003)
1915 – Pat Buttram, American actor (d. 1994)
1915 – Julius Schwartz, American publisher and agent (d. 2004)
1917 – Joshua Nkomo, Zimbabwean politician, Vice President of Zimbabwe (d. 1999)
1919 – Pauline Kael, American author and critic (d. 2001)
1919 – Dave Lambert, American singer-songwriter (Lambert, Hendricks & Ross) (d. 1966)
1920 – Yves Robert, French actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 2002)
1921 – Louis Jourdan, French-American actor and singer
1922 – Aage Bohr, Danish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2009)
1922 – Fritz Schollmeyer, German footballer and manager
1923 – Bob Hank, Australian footballer and coach (d. 2012)
1924 – Cornelius, Estonian clergyman
1924 – Leo Nomellini, Italian-American football player (d. 2000)
1925 – Charlie Drake, English actor, singer, and screenwriter (d. 2006)
1928 – Tommy DeVito, American singer and guitarist (The Four Seasons and Four Lovers)
1928 – Nancy Marchand, American actress (d. 2000)
1928 – Barry Took, English actor, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2002)
1929 – Thelma Barlow, English actress
1929 – Raymond Bonham Carter, English banker (d. 2004)
1930 – François Abadie, French politician (d. 2001)
1930 – Bryan Kneale, British sculptor
1930 – Gena Rowlands, American actress
1930 – Diana Sowle, American actress
1931 – John Dennis, British bishop
1931 – Hanley Funderburk, American academic (d. 2012)
1932 – Pier Angeli, Italian-American actress (d. 1971)
1932 – José Sanchis Grau, Spanish author and illustrator (d. 2011)
1932 – Marisa Pavan, Italian-American actress
1933 – Michael M. Ames, Canadian academic (d. 2006)
1933 – Viktor Patsayev, Kazakh engineer and astronaut (d. 1971)
1934 – Terence Clark, British diplomat
1934 – Gérard Latortue, Haitian politician, 12th Prime Minister of Haiti
1936 – Marisa Galvany, American soprano
1936 – Shirley Goodman, American singer (Shirley & Company) (d. 2005)
1938 – Jean-Claude Labrecque, Canadian director and cinematographer
1938 – Wahoo McDaniel, American football player and wrestler (d. 2002)
1938 – John Sheil, British judge
1938 – Ian Smith, Australian actor and screenwriter
1939 – Bernd Hoss, German footballer and manager
1939 – Al Wilson, American singer (d. 2008)
1940 – Shirley Muldowney, American race car driver
1940 – Paul Shane, English actor and singer (d. 2013)
1941 – Conchita Carpio-Morales, Filipino jurist
1941 – Václav Klaus, Czech politician, 2nd President of the Czech Republic
1942 – Jos Brink, Dutch actor and producer (d. 2007)
1942 – Neil Chalmers, British academic
1942 – Merata Mita, New Zealand director and producer (d. 2010)
1942 – Jeff Moss, American screenwriter and composer (d. 1998)
1944 – Chico Buarque, Brazilian singer-songwriter and guitarist
1944 – Richard Monette, Canadian actor and director (d. 2008)
1945 – John Hind, British bishop
1945 – Radovan Karadžić, Serbian-Bosnian politician, 1st President of Republika Srpska
1945 – Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese politician, Nobel Prize laureate
1945 – Tobias Wolff, American author
1945 – Peter Bardens, English keyboardist (Camel) (d. 2002)
1946 – Jimmy Greenhoff, English footballer and manager
1946 – Michael Jay, British diplomat
1947 – Paula Koivuniemi, Finnish singer
1947 – Salman Rushdie, Indian author
1947 – John Ralston Saul, Canadian author
1948 – Nick Drake, English singer-songwriter (d. 1974)
1948 – Barry Hearn, British sporting events promoter
1948 – Phylicia Rashād, American actress and singer
1950 – Judith Parker, British judge
1950 – Rosie Shuster, Canadian comedy writer
1950 – Ann Wilson, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Heart)
1951 – Ayman al-Zawahiri, Egyptian terrorist, 2nd leader of al-Qaeda
1951 – Patty Larkin, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
1951 – Francesco Moser, Italian cyclist
1951 – Karen Young, Canadian singer-songwriter
1952 – Bob Ainsworth, English politician
1953 – Larry Dunn, American keyboard player, songwriter, and producer (Earth, Wind & Fire)
1953 – Hilary Jones, English doctor
1953 – Simon Wright, English drummer best known for his time with rock n' roll bands AC/DC and Dio
1954 – Mike O'Brien, British politician
1954 – Kathleen Turner, American actress
1956 – Doug Stone, American singer and actor
1956 – Danny Chauncey, American rock guitarist. He is best known for being a member of the Southern rock band 38 Special
1957 – Anna Lindh, Swedish politician, 39th Minister of Foreign Affairs for Sweden (d. 2003)
1958 – Sergei Makarov, Russian-American ice hockey player
1959 – Mark DeBarge, American singer-songwriter and trumpet player (DeBarge)
1959 – Sophie Grigson, English cookery writer and chef
1959 – Christian Wulff, German lawyer and politician, 10th President of Germany
1960 – Andrew Dilnot, British academic
1960 – Luke Morley, English guitarist, songwriter, and producer (The Union, Terraplane, and Thunder)
1961 – Frank Mischke, German footballer
1962 – Paula Abdul, American singer-songwriter, dancer, and actress
1962 – Jeremy Bates, English tennis player
1962 – Peter Bradshaw, British film critic and writer
1963 – Rory Underwood, English rugby player
1964 – Bill Barretta, American actor and puppeteer
1964 – Brent Goulet, American soccer player and manager
1964 – Laura Ingraham, American radio host and author
1964 – Boris Johnson, American-English journalist and politician
1964 – Sixten Sild, Estonian orienteer
1964 – Brian Vander Ark, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor (The Verve Pipe)
1965 – Sabine Braun, German heptathlete
1965 – Luc Donckerwolke, Belgian car designer
1965 – Sadie Frost, English actress and producer
1966 – Joi Ito, Japanese-American businessman
1966 – Michalis Romanidis, Greek basketball player
1966 – Sam West, English actor
1967 – Bjørn Dæhlie, Norwegian skier
1967 – Mia Sara, American actress
1967 – Araceli González, Argentinian actress, fashion model and TV host
1968 – Alastair Lynch, Australian footballer and sportscaster
1968 – Kim Walker (actress), American actress (d. 2001)
1969 – Thomas Breitling, American journalist and businessman
1969 – Marko Reikop, Estonian television and radio journalist
1969 – Lara Spencer, American journalist
1970 – Rahul Gandhi, Indian politician
1970 – Antonis Remos, German-Greek singer
1970 – Quincy Watts, American runner
1970 – Brian Welch, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Korn and Love and Death)
1972 – Jean Dujardin, French actor, director, and producer
1972 – Dennis Lyxzén, Swedish singer-songwriter (Refused, AC4, Invasionen, Step Forward, and The (International) Noise Conspiracy)
1972 – Brian McBride, American soccer player
1972 – Eric Sheffer Stevens, American actor
1972 – Robin Tunney, American actress
1973 – Jahine Arnold, American football player
1973 – Yuko Nakazawa, Japanese singer and actress (Morning Musume and Dream Morning Musume)
1973 – Yasuhiko Yabuta, Japanese baseball player
1973 – Mónica Ayos, Argentine actress
1974 – Doug Mientkiewicz, American baseball player, coach, and manager
1974 – Bumper Robinson, American actor and singer
1975 – Ed Coode, British rower
1975 – Hugh Dancy, English actor
1975 – Poppy Montgomery, Australian-American actress
1975 – Colin Osborne, English darts player
1975 – Anthony Parker, American basketball player
1975 – Geoff Ramsey, American voice actor and producer
1976 – Dennis Crowley, American businessman, co-founded Foursquare
1976 – Bryan Hughes, English footballer
1976 – Ryan Hurst, American actor
1976 – Patrick Surtain, American football player
1976 – Abdoul Thiam, German footballer
1977 – Rebecca Loos, Spanish-Dutch model and television host
1977 – Veronika Vařeková, Czech-American model
1977 – Peter Warrick, American football player
1978 – Tyson Dux, Canadian wrestler
1978 – Mía Maestro, Argentinian actress and singer
1978 – Dirk Nowitzki, German basketball player
1978 – Zoe Saldana, American actress
1978 – Claudio Vargas, Dominican baseball player
1979 – Moonika Aava, Estonian javelin thrower
1979 – Graeme Ballard, British paralympian athlete
1979 – John Duddy, Irish boxer
1979 – U Gambira, Burmese monk and activist
1979 – Quentin Jammer, American football player
1979 – José Kléberson, Brazilian footballer
1980 – Adel Abdulaziz, Emirati footballer
1980 – Dan Ellis, Canadian ice hockey player
1980 – Milka Loff Fernandes, German actress
1980 – Robbie Neilson, Scottish footballer
1980 – Nuno Santos, Portuguese footballer
1980 – Lauren Lee Smith, Canadian actress
1981 – Christina Baily, English actress
1981 – Moss Burmester, New Zealand swimmer
1981 – Quintin Geldenhuys, South African-Italian rugby player
1982 – Joe Cheng, Taiwanese actor and singer
1982 – Alexander Frolov, Russian ice hockey player
1982 – Trevor Hamilton, Irish murderer
1982 – David Pollack, American football player
1982 – Chris Vermeulen, Australian motorcycle racer
1983 – Gregor Arbet, Estonian basketball player
1983 – Macklemore, American rapper
1983 – Tatjana Mihhailova, Estonian singer and actress
1983 – Mark Selby, English snooker player
1983 – Aidan Turner, Irish actor
1984 – Paul Dano, American actor and producer
1984 – Wieke Dijkstra, Dutch field hockey player
1985 – Kajal Aggarwal, Indian actress
1985 – Jason Capizzi, American football player
1985 – Stéphanie Montreux, Australian actress and singer
1985 – José Ernesto Sosa, Argentinian footballer
1986 – Nazareno Casero, Argentinian actor
1986 – Andrea De Falco, Italian footballer
1986 – Sjoerd Huisman, Dutch speed skater (d. 2013)
1986 – Diego Hypólito, Brazilian gymnast
1986 – Erin Mackey, American actress and singer
1986 – Dimitris Sialmas, Greek footballer
1986 – Marvin Williams, American basketball player
1987 – Sthefany Brito, Brazilian actress
1987 – Miho Fukuhara, Japanese singer and actress
1987 – Rashard Mendenhall, American football player
1987 – Ashli Orion, American porn actress
1987 – Rachael Todd, American model, Miss Florida 2009
1995 – Blake Woodruff, American actor
1996 – Larisa Iordache, Romanian gymnast
1998 – Atticus Shaffer, American actor

19 June Deaths

626 – Soga no Umako, Japanese son of Soga no Iname (b. 551)
1027 – Romuald, Italian saint (b. 951)
1282 – Eleanor de Montfort, wife of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, prince of Wales (b. 1252)
1312 – Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall, English politician (b. 1284)
1542 – Leo Jud, Swiss reformer (b. 1482)
1545 – Abraomas Kulvietis, Lithuanian jurist (b. 1509)
1584 – Francis, Duke of Anjou (b. 1555)
1608 – Alberico Gentili, Italian jurist (b. 1551)
1650 – Matthäus Merian, Swiss-German engraver and publisher (b. 1593)
1747 – Alessandro Marcello, Italian composer (b. 1669)
1762 – Johann Ernst Eberlin, German organist and composer (b. 1702)
1768 – Benjamin Tasker, Sr., American politician, 10th Colonial Governor of Maryland (b. 1690)
1786 – Nathanael Greene, American general (b. 1742)
1787 – Princess Sophie Hélène Béatrice of France (b. 1786)
1805 – Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée, French painter (b. 1724)
1820 – Joseph Banks, English botanist (b. 1743)
1844 – Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, French biologist (b. 1772)
1865 – Evangelos Zappas, Greek businessman and philanthropist (b. 1800)
1884 – Juan Bautista Alberdi, Argentinian politician (b. 1810)
1867 – Maximilian I of Mexico (b. 1832)
1902 – Albert of Saxony (b. 1828)
1903 – Herbert Vaughan, English archbishop (b. 1832)
1921 – Ramón López Velarde, Mexican poet (b. 1888)
1922 – Hitachiyama Taniemon, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 19th Yokozuna (b. 1874)
1932 – Sol Plaatje, South African journalist and activist (b. 1876)
1937 – J. M. Barrie, Scottish author and playwright (b. 1860)
1939 – Grace Abbott, American social worker and activist (b. 1878)
1940 – Maurice Jaubert, French composer (b. 1900)
1949 – Syed Zafarul Hasan, Indian philosopher (b. 1885)
1951 – Angelos Sikelianos, Greek poet and playwright (b. 1884)
1953 – Ethel Rosenberg, American spy (b. 1915)
1953 – Julius Rosenberg, American spy (b. 1918)
1956 – Thomas J. Watson, American businessman (b. 1874)
1966 – Ed Wynn, American actor and singer (b. 1886)
1968 – James Joseph Sweeney, American bishop (b. 1898)
1975 – Sam Giancana, American mobster (b. 1908)
1977 – Ali Shariati, Iranian sociologist (b. 1933)
1979 – Paul Popenoe, American explorer and scholar, founded Relationship counseling (b. 1888)
1984 – Lee Krasner, American painter (b. 1908)
1984 – Sunny Johnson, American actress (d. 1953)
1986 – Coluche, French comedian and actor (b. 1944)
1986 – Len Bias, American basketball player (b. 1963)
1987 – Teresa Cormack, New Zealand murder victim (b. 1981)
1988 – Fernand Seguin, Canadian biochemist (b. 1922)
1988 – Gladys Spellman, American politician (b. 1918)
1989 – Betti Alver, Estonian poet (b. 1906)
1990 – G. Yogasangari, Sri Lankan Tamil militant and politician
1991 – Jean Arthur, American actress and singer (b. 1900)
1993 – William Golding, English author, poet, and playwright, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)
1995 – Peter Townsend, Burmese-English pilot (b. 1914)
1996 – G. David Schine, American businessman (b. 1927)
1997 – Olga Georges-Picot, Chinese-French actress (b. 1944)
1997 – Bobby Helms, American singer and guitarist (b. 1933)
2001 – John Heyer, Australian director and producer (b. 1916)
2001 – Steve Sheppard-Brodie, American voice actor (b. 1950)
2002 – Navleen Kumar, Indian activist
2003 – Laura Sadler, English actress (b. 1980)
2007 – Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer-songwriter, actor, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1919)
2007 – El Fary, Spanish singer and actor (b. 1937)
2007 – Terry Hoeppner, American football player and coach (b. 1947)
2007 – Ze'ev Schiff, Israeli journalist (b. 1932)
2008 – Barun Sengupta, Bengali journalist, founded Bartaman (b. 1934)
2008 – Bennie Swain, American basketball player and coach (b. 1930)
2009 – Tomoji Tanabe, Japanese engineer and super-centenarian (b. 1895)
2010 – Manute Bol, Sudanese-American basketball player (b. 1962)
2010 – R. Kanagasuntheram, Sri Lankan physician, zoologist, and academic (b. 1919)
2010 – Anthony Quinton, Baron Quinton, English philosopher (b. 1925)
2011 – Don Diamond, American actor (b. 1921)
2012 – Anthony Bate, English actor (b. 1929)
2012 – Richard Lynch, American actor (b. 1936)
2012 – Michael Palliser, English diplomat (b. 1922)
2012 – Aloysio José Leal Penna, Brazilian archbishop (b. 1933)
2012 – Emili Teixidor, Catalan journalist (b. 1933)
2012 – Norbert Tiemann, American politician, 32nd Governor of Nebraska (b. 1924)
2013 – Vince Flynn, American author (b. 1966)
2013 – James Gandolfini, American actor (b. 1961)
2013 – Parke Godwin, American author (b. 1929)
2013 – Michael Hodgman, Australian politician (b. 1938)
2013 – Gyula Horn, Hungarian politician, 37th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1932)
2013 – Dave Jennings, American football player and sportscaster (b. 1952)
2013 – Danny Kravitz, American baseball player (b. 1930)
2013 – Paul Mees, Australian academic (b. 1961)
2013 – Miguel Morayta, Spanish director and screenwriter (b. 1907)
2013 – Kim Thompson, Danish-American publisher (b. 1956)
2013 – Filip Topol, Czech singer-songwriter and pianist (Psí vojáci) (b. 1965)
2013 – Slim Whitman, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1923)

20 June Events

451 – Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius' battles Attila the Hun. After the battle, which was inconclusive, Attila retreats, causing the Romans to interpret it as a victory.
1214 – The University of Oxford receives its charter.
1631 – The sack of Baltimore: the Irish village of Baltimore is attacked by Algerian pirates.
1652 – Tarhoncu Ahmet Paşa is appointed grand vezir of the Ottoman Empire.
1685 – Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth declares himself King of England at Bridgwater.
1756 – A British garrison is imprisoned in the Black Hole of Calcutta.
1782 – The U.S. Congress adopts the Great Seal of the United States.
1787 – Oliver Ellsworth moves at the Federal Convention to call the government the United States.
1789 – Deputies of the French Third Estate take the Tennis Court Oath.
1819 – The U.S. vessel SS Savannah arrives at Liverpool, England, United Kingdom. It is the first steam-propelled vessel to cross the Atlantic, although most of the journey is made under sail.
1837 – Queen Victoria succeeds to the British throne.
1840 – Samuel Morse receives the patent for the telegraph.
1862 – Barbu Catargiu, the Prime Minister of Romania, is assassinated.
1863 – American Civil War: West Virginia is admitted as the 35th U.S. state.
1877 – Alexander Graham Bell installs the world's first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
1887 – Victoria Terminus, the busiest railway station in India, opens in Bombay.
1893 – Lizzie Borden is acquitted of the murders of her father and stepmother.
1895 – The Kiel Canal, crossing the base of the Jutland peninsula and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, is officially opened.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion: The Imperial Chinese Army begins a 55-day siege of the Legation Quarter in Beijing, China.
1919 – One hundred fifty die at the Teatro Yaguez fire, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.
1921 – Workers of Buckingham and Carnatic Mills in the city of Chennai, India, begin a four-month strike.
1940 – World War II: Italy begins an unsuccessful invasion of France.
1942 – The Holocaust: Kazimierz Piechowski and three others, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, steal an SS staff car and escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1943 – The Detroit Race Riot breaks out and continues for three more days.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of the Philippine Sea concludes with a decisive U.S. naval victory. The lopsided naval air battle is also known as the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot".
1944 – Continuation war: the Soviet Union demands an unconditional surrender from Finland during the beginning of partially successful Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive. The Finnish government refuses.
1945 – The United States Secretary of State approves the transfer of Wernher von Braun and his team of Nazi rocket scientists to America.
1948 – Toast of the Town, later The Ed Sullivan Show, makes its television debut.
1956 – A Venezuelan Super-Constellation crashes in the Atlantic Ocean off Asbury Park, New Jersey, killing 74 people.
1959 – A rare June hurricane strikes Canada's Gulf of St. Lawrence killing 35.
1960 – The Mali Federation gains independence from France (it later splits into Mali and Senegal).
1963 – The so-called "red telephone" is established between the Soviet Union and the United States following the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1972 – Watergate scandal: An 18½-minute gap appears in the tape recording of the conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and his advisers regarding the recent arrests of his operatives while breaking into the Watergate complex.
1973 – Ezeiza massacre in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Snipers fire upon left-wing Peronists. At least 13 are killed and more than 300 are injured.
1979 – ABC News correspondent Bill Stewart is shot dead by a Nicaraguan soldier under the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle. The murder is caught on tape and sparks an international outcry against the regime.
1982 – The Argentine base (Corbeta Uruguay) on Southern Thule surrenders to Royal Marine commandos in the final action of the Falklands War.
1990 – Asteroid Eureka is discovered.
1991 – The German Bundestag votes to move the capital from Bonn back to Berlin.
2001 – Andrea Yates, in an attempt to save her young children from Satan, drowns all five of them in a bathtub in Houston, Texas.
2003 – The Wikimedia Foundation is founded in St. Petersburg, Florida.

Jun 20, 1947:
Bugsy Siegel, organized crime leader, is killed

Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, the man who brought organized crime to the West Coast, is shot and killed at his mistress Virginia Hill's home in Beverly Hills, California. Siegel had been talking to his associate Allen Smiley when three bullets were fired through the window and into his head, killing him instantly.

Siegel's childhood had been pretty similar to that of other organized crime leaders: Growing up with little money in Brooklyn, he managed to establish himself as a teenage thug. With his pal Meyer Lansky, Siegel terrorized local peddlers and collected protection money. Before long, they had a business that included bootlegging and gambling all over New York City.

By the late 1930s, Siegel had become one of the major players of a highly powerful crime syndicate, which gave him $500,000 to set up a Los Angeles franchise. Bugsy threw himself into the Hollywood scene, making friends with some of the biggest names of the time--Cary Grant, Clark Gable, and Jean Harlow. His all-night parties at his Beverly Hills mansion became the hot spot in town. He also started up a solid gambling and narcotics operation to keep his old friends back east happy. Just before World War II began, Siegel traveled to Italy to sell explosives to Mussolini, but the deal fizzled when tests of the explosives did too.

In 1945, Siegel had a brilliant idea. Just hours away from Los Angeles sat the sleepy desert town of Las Vegas, Nevada. It had nothing going for it except for a compliant local government and legal gambling. Siegel decided to build the Flamingo Hotel in the middle of the desert with $6,000,000, a chunk of which came from the New York syndicate.

The Flamingo wasn't immediately profitable and Siegel ended up in an argument with Lucky Luciano over paying back the money used to build it. Around the same time that Siegel was killed in Beverly Hills, Luciano's men walked into the Flamingo and announced that they were now in charge. Even Siegel probably never imagined the astounding growth and success of Las Vegas in the subsequent years.

Jun 20, 1905:
Lillian Hellman is born

Playwright and screenwriter Lillian Hellman is born in New Orleans on this day.

Hellman grew up shuttling between New Orleans and New York: Her parents spent six months of each year with family in each city. She studied at New York University and at Columbia, but did not take a degree from either college. She worked in New York in publishing and in Hollywood evaluating screenplays while she wrote her own material.

In 1925, she married the playwright Arthur Kober but divorced him several years later. She traveled to Russia and civil-war-era Spain, and became a supporter of leftist causes.

In 1934, her first play, The Children's Hour, about children's lies regarding two schoolteachers, was published and became an immediate hit, running for 691 performances. Another big hit was The Little Foxes in 1939, about the manipulations of a ruthless family.

Hellman had a long relationship and lived sporadically with hard-boiled mystery writer and former private eye Dashiell Hammett. Both their lives were shattered by Senator McCarthy's anticommunist campaign, though neither were communists. Hammett went to jail, and Hellman lost her home. After Hammett's release, he fell ill. She cared for him until his death in 1961. She wrote many more highly acclaimed plays, as well as screenplays and four books of memoirs. She taught at Harvard, MIT, and Berkeley, and died of a heart attack on Martha's Vineyard in 1989.

Jun 20, 1919:
German cabinet resigns over Versailles deadlock

On this day in 1919, during the final days of the Versailles Peace Conference held in Paris, France, the German cabinet deadlocks over whether to accept the peace terms presented to its delegation by the other nations at the peace conference–most notably the Council of Four: France, Britain, the United States and Italy–and ratify the Versailles Treaty.

Presented with the terms of the treaty on May 7, 1919, the German delegation was given two weeks to examine the document and submit their official comments in writing. The Germans, who had put great faith in U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's notion of a so-called "peace without victory" and had pointed to his famous Fourteen Points as the basis upon which they sought peace in November 1918, were greatly angered and disillusioned by the treaty. By its terms, Germany was to lose 13 percent of its territory and 10 percent of its population; it would also have to pay reparations, a punishment justified in the treaty by the infamous Article 231, which placed the blame for the war squarely on Germany.

Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, Germany's foreign minister and leader of the German delegation at Versailles, was furious about the treaty. "This fat volume was quite unnecessary. They could have expressed the whole thing more simply in one clause–Germany renounces its existence." The country's military leaders were similarly against the treaty; as Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg saw it, "as a soldier I can only prefer honorable defeat to a disgraceful peace." Some members of the coalition government that had taken power in Berlin, however, were of a different view, believing that Germany, in its weakened state, would benefit by signing the treaty in order to put the war behind it and begin rebuilding its manufacturing and commerce operations.

After Brockdorff-Rantzau's delegation passed a unanimous recommendation to reject the treaty, the German cabinet, which had previously been leaning towards signing, deadlocked in its vote on June 20 and subsequently resigned en masse. Brockdorff-Rantzau followed suit, leaving Paris, and politics, altogether. Friedrich Ebert, the German president since late 1918, was persuaded to stay on, however, and as the Allied deadline of June 23 approached, he managed to assemble another cabinet to put the issue to a vote. After a last-minute flurry of activity, the German National Assembly voted to sign the treaty and its answer was delivered to the Council of Four at 5:40 p.m. on June 23. The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919, in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, five years to the day after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife at Sarajevo.
20 June Births

1005 – Ali az-Zahir, Egyptian caliph (d. 1036)
1389 – John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, English son of Henry IV of England (d. 1435)
1469 – Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Italian husband of Isabella of Naples (d. 1494)
1485 – Astorre III Manfredi, Italian lord (d. 1502)
1566 – Sigismund III Vasa, Swedish-Polish son of John III of Sweden (d. 1632)
1583 – Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and politician, Lord High Constable of Sweden (d. 1652)
1634 – Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy (d. 1675)
1642 – George Hickes, English scholar (d. 1715)
1647 – John George III, Elector of Saxony (d. 1691)
1699 – William Gustav of Anhalt-Dessau (d. 1737)
1717 – Jacques Saly, French sculptor (d. 1776)
1723 – Adam Ferguson, Scottish philosopher and historian (d. 1816)
1723 – Theophilus Lindsey, English clergyman and theologian (d. 1808)
1733 – Betty Washington Lewis, American sister of George Washington (d. 1797)
1737 – Tokugawa Ieharu, Japanese shogun (d. 1786)
1754 – Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (d. 1832)
1756 – Joseph Martin Kraus, Swedish composer (d. 1792)
1761 – Jacob Hübner, German entomologist and author (d. 1826)
1763 – Wolfe Tone, Irish general (d. 1798)
1770 – Moses Waddel, American minister and academic (d. 1840)
1771 – Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, Scottish philanthropist (d. 1820)
1771 – Hermann von Boyen, German army officer (d. 1848)
1777 – Jean-Jacques Lartigue, Canadian bishop (d. 1840)
1778 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French politician, 7th Prime Minister of France (d. 1832)
1786 – Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, French poet (d. 1859)
1796 – Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso, Italian cardinal (d. 1878)
1808 – Samson Raphael Hirsch, German rabbi (d. 1888)
1813 – Joseph Autran, French poet (d. 1877)
1819 – Jacques Offenbach, German-French cellist and composer (d. 1880)
1855 – Richard Lodge, English historian (d. 1936)
1858 – Charles W. Chesnutt, American author (d. 1932)
1860 – Jack Worrall, Australian cricketer, footballer, and coach (d. 1937)
1861 – Frederick Gowland Hopkins, English biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1947)
1862 – Marco Praga, Italian playwright (d. 1929)
1869 – Laxmanrao Kirloskar, Indian businessman (d. 1956)
1870 – Georges Dufrénoy, French painter (d. 1943)
1872 – George Carpenter, American 5th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1948)
1875 – Reginald Punnett, English geneticist (d. 1967)
1876 – Romuald Joubé, French actor (d. 1949)
1882 – Daniel Sawyer, American golfer (d. 1937)
1884 – Johannes Heinrich Schultz, German psychiatrist (d. 1970)
1885 – Andrzej Gawroński, Polish linguist (d. 1927)
1887 – Kurt Schwitters, German painter (d. 1948)
1889 – John S. Paraskevopoulos, Greek-South African astronomer (d. 1951)
1891 – Giannina Arangi-Lombardi, Italian soprano (d. 1951)
1891 – John A. Costello, Irish lawyer and politician, 3rd Taoiseach of Ireland (d. 1976)
1893 – Wilhelm Zaisser, German politician (d. 1958)
1894 – Lloyd Hall, American chemist (d. 1971)
1896 – Wilfrid Pelletier, Canadian pianist, composer, and conductor (d. 1982)
1897 – Elisabeth Hauptmann, German author (d. 1973)
1899 – Jean Moulin, French resistance leader (d. 1943)
1903 – Sam Rabin, English wrestler, sculptor and singer (d. 1991)
1905 – Lillian Hellman, American playwright (d. 1984)
1906 – Bob King, American high jumper (d. 1965)
1907 – Jimmy Driftwood, American singer-songwriter and banjo player (d. 1998)
1908 – Billy Werber, American baseball player (d. 2009)
1909 – Errol Flynn, Australian-American actor, singer, and producer (d. 1959)
1910 – Josephine Johnson, American author (d. 1990)
1911 – Gail Patrick, American actress and singer (d. 1980)
1912 – Anthony Buckeridge, English author (d. 2004)
1912 – Jack Torrance, American athlete (d. 1969)
1914 – Zelda, Israeli poet (d. 1984)
1914 – Gordon Juckes, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1994)
1915 – Dick Reynolds, Australian footballer and coach (d. 2002)
1915 – Terence Young, Chinese-English director and screenwriter (d. 1994)
1916 – Jean-Jacques Bertrand, Canadian politician, 21st Premier of Quebec (d. 1973)
1916 – Johnny Morris, Welsh television host (d. 1999)
1917 – Helena Rasiowa, Polish mathematician (d. 1994)
1917 – Igor Śmiałowski, Polish actor (d. 2006)
1918 – George Lynch, American race car driver (d. 1997)
1918 – Zoltán Sztáray, Hungarian author (d. 2011)
1920 – Danny Cedrone, American guitarist and bandleader (d. 1954)
1920 – Thomas Jefferson, American trumpet player
1921 – Byron Farwell, American historian (d. 1999)
1923 – Jerzy Nowak, Polish actor (d. 2013)
1923 – Bjørn Watt-Boolsen, Danish actor (d. 1998)
1924 – Chet Atkins, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (d. 2001)
1924 – Fritz Koenig, German sculptor, designed The Sphere
1924 – Audie Murphy, American lieutenant and actor Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1971)
1926 – Rehavam Ze'evi, Israeli general and politician (d. 2001)
1928 – Eric Dolphy, American saxophonist and composer (d. 1964)
1928 – Martin Landau, American actor
1928 – Jean-Marie Le Pen, French politician
1928 – Asrat Woldeyes, Ethiopian surgeon and educator (d. 1999)
1929 – Edgar Bronfman, Sr., Canadian-American businessman and philanthropist (d. 2013)
1929 – Anne Weale, English journalist and author (d. 2007)
1930 – Magdalena Abakanowicz, Polish sculptor
1930 – Paul Pender, American boxer (d. 2003)
1930 – John Waine, British bishop
1931 – Olympia Dukakis, American actress
1931 – James Tolkan, American actor
1932 – Robert Rozhdestvensky, Russian poet (d. 1994)
1933 – Danny Aiello, American actor
1933 – Claire Tomalin, British author
1934 – Wendy Craig, English actress and screenwriter
1934 – Rossana Podestà, Libyan-Italian actress (d. 2013)
1934 – Yuri Vizbor, Russian poet (d. 1984)
1935 – Len Dawson, American football player and sportscaster
1935 – Neal Knox, American activist and author (d. 2005)
1935 – Armando Picchi, Italian footballer and coach (d. 1971)
1936 – Billy Guy, American singer (The Coasters) (d. 2002)
1936 – Enn Vetemaa, Estonian writer, translator and composer
1937 – Stafford Dean, English bass opera singer
1937 – Jerry Keller, American singer-songwriter
1938 – Mickie Most, English singer and producer (d. 2003)
1939 – Michael Buckley, British civil servant
1939 – Ramakant Desai, Indian cricketer (d. 1998)
1939 – Budge Rogers, English rugby football player
1940 – Eugen Drewermann, German priest and theologian
1940 – John Mahoney, English-American actor
1941 – Stephen Frears, English actor, director, and producer
1941 – Dieter Mann, German actor
1941 – Ulf Merbold, German physicist and astronaut
1942 – Andrew Graham, British academic
1942 – Richard I. Neal, American general
1942 – Neil Trudinger, Australian mathematician
1942 – Brian Wilson, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Beach Boys)
1944 – Cheryl Holdridge, American actress (d. 2009)
1944 – John McCook, American actor
1944 – David Roper, English actor
1945 – Anne Murray, Canadian singer and guitarist
1946 – Xanana Gusmão, Timorese politician, 1st President of East Timor
1946 – Nigel Kalton, British-American mathematician (d. 2010)
1946 – Bob Vila, American television host
1946 – Lars Vilks, Swedish sculptor
1946 – Joseph Waeckerle, American physician
1946 – André Watts, American pianist and educator
1946 – Tony Aitken, English actor
1947 – Dolores "LaLa" Brooks, American-English singer-songwriter (The Crystals)
1947 – Candy Clark, American actress
1947 – Josef Clemens, German bishop
1947 – David French, British charity administrator
1947 – Ivo Milazzo, Italian illustrator
1948 – Ludwig Scotty, Nauruan politician, 10th President of Nauru
1949 – Alan Longmuir, Scottish bass player and actor (Bay City Rollers)
1949 – Lionel Richie, American singer-songwriter, pianist, producer, and actor (Commodores)
1950 – Nouri al-Maliki, Iraqi politician, 76th Prime Minister of Iraq
1950 – Peregrine Simon, British judge
1951 – Tress MacNeille, American voice actress
1951 – Sheila McLean, British legal scholar
1951 – Paul Muldoon, Irish poet
1951 – Bill Simon, American businessman and politician
1952 – John Goodman, American actor and singer
1952 – Vince Gotera, American poet
1952 – Gordon Marshall, British sociologist
1952 – Larry Riley, American actor (d. 1992)
1952 – Vikram Seth, Indian author and poet
1953 – Robert Crais, American author
1953 – Ulrich Mühe, German actor (d. 2007)
1953 – Raúl Ramírez, Mexican tennis player
1953 – Willy Rampf, German engineer
1954 – Michael Anthony, American bass player (Van Halen and Chickenfoot)
1954 – Allan Lamb, South African-English cricketer
1954 – Andrew McFarlane, British judge
1954 – Miles O'Keeffe, American actor
1954 – Ilan Ramon, Israeli colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003)
1955 – E. Lynn Harris, American author (d. 2009)
1956 – Simon Bryant, British Royal Air Force officer
1956 – Peter Reid, English footballer and manager
1957 – Koko B. Ware, American wrestler
1958 – Ron Hornaday, Jr., American race car driver
1958 – Chuck Wagner, American actor
1959 – Louise Bessette, Canadian pianist
1959 – Evelyn Cox, American guitarist and singer
1960 – John Taylor, English bass player, songwriter, producer, and actor (Duran Duran, Power Station, Neurotic Outsiders)
1960 – Philip M. Parker, American economist, and inventor
1962 – Alex Di Gregorio, Italian cartoonist
1963 – Kirk Baptiste, American sprinter
1963 – Amir Derakh, American musician (Orgy, Rough Cutt, Julien-K, and Dead by Sunrise)
1963 – Don West, American sportscaster
1964 – Pierfrancesco Chili, Italian motorcycle racer
1964 – Silke Möller, German runner
1967 – Nicole Kidman, Australian-American actress, singer, and producer
1967 – Dan Tyminski, American bluegrass composer, vocalist, and instrumentalist
1968 – Robert Rodriguez, American director, producer, and screenwriter
1969 – Paulo Bento, Portuguese footballer and manager
1969 – Peter Paige, American actor, director, and screenwriter
1969 – Misha Verbitsky, Russian mathematician
1969 – MaliVai Washington, American tennis player
1970 – Jason Robert Brown, American composer and playwright
1970 – Moulay Rachid ben al Hassan, Moroccan son of Hassan II of Morocco
1970 – Andrea Nahles, German politician
1971 – Josh Kronfeld, New Zealand rugby player
1971 – Brandon Lewis, English politician
1971 – Josh Lucas, American actor and producer
1971 – Rodney Rogers, American basketball player and coach
1971 – Jeordie White, American singer-songwriter and musician (Marilyn Manson, Nine Inch Nails, A Perfect Circle, Goon Moon and The Desert Sessions)
1972 – Alexis Alexoudis, Greek footballer
1972 – Paul Bako, American baseball player
1972 – Yuval Semo, Israeli actor
1973 – Maria Filippov, Bulgarian ice skater
1973 – Chino Moreno, American singer-songwriter (Deftones, Team Sleep, and Crosses)
1974 – Tuta, Brazilian footballer
1974 – Attila Czene, Hungarian swimmer
1974 – Lenin M. Sivam, Sri Lankan-Canadian director, producer, and screenwriter
1975 – Daniel Zítka, Czech footballer
1976 – Juliano Belletti, Brazilian footballer
1976 – Jerome Fontamillas, American singer and guitarist (Switchfoot, Mortal, and Fold Zandura)
1976 – Carlos Lee, Panamanian baseball player
1976 – Rob Mackowiak, American baseball player
1977 – Gordan Giriček, Croatian basketball player
1977 – Nerijus Vasiliauskas, Lithuanian footballer
1978 – LaVar Arrington, American football player and sportscaster
1978 – Quinton Jackson, American mixed martial artist and actor
1978 – Frank Lampard, English footballer
1978 – Jan-Paul Saeijs, Dutch footballer
1978 – Bobby Seay, American baseball player
1979 – Charlotte Hatherley, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (Ash, Nightnurse, and Client)
1979 – Charles Howell III, American golfer
1979 – Elis Meetua, Estonian footballer
1979 – Cael Sanderson, American wrestler
1980 – Carlo Festuccia, Italian rugby player
1980 – Tony Lovato, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Mest)
1980 – Franco Semioli, Italian footballer
1980 – Fabian Wegmann, German cyclist
1981 – Angerfist, Dutch DJ and producer
1981 – Ardian Gashi, Albanian-Norwegian footballer
1981 – Brede Hangeland, Norwegian footballer
1981 – Alisan Porter, American child actress and singer
1982 – Yas, Iranian Rapper
1982 – Example, English singer
1982 – Aleksei Berezutski, Russian footballer
1982 – Vasili Berezutski, Russian footballer
1982 – George Forsyth, Peruvian footballer
1982 – April Ross, American volleyball player
1983 – Josh Childress, American basketball player
1983 – Darren Sproles, American football player
1983 – Cherrie Ying, Taiwanese-Hong Kong actress
1984 – Hassan Adams, American basketball player
1984 – Neetu Chandra, Indian actress
1984 – Dennis Malura, German footballer
1985 – Matt Flynn, American football player
1985 – Kai Hesse, German footballer
1985 – Souleymane Mamam, Togolese footballer
1985 – Darko Miličić, Serbian basketball player
1985 – Halil Savran, German footballer
1986 – Dreama Walker, American actress
1987 – Carsten Ball, Australian tennis player
1987 – Asmir Begovic, Bosnian footballer
1987 – Joseph Ebuya, Kenyan long-distance runner
1989 – Christopher Mintz-Plasse, American actor
1989 – Javier Pastore, Argentinian footballer
1989 – Terrelle Pryor, American football player
1990 – DeQuan Jones, American basketball player
1991 – Rick ten Voorde, Dutch footballer
1994 – Raven Rockette, American porn actress
1995 – Carol Zhao, Canadian tennis player
1998 – Jadin Gould, American actress
1999 – Yui Mizuno, Japanese idol, singer and model

20 June Deaths

537 – Pope Silverius
656 – Uthman ibn Affan, Muslim caliph (b. 577)
840 – Louis the Pious, Roman emperor (b. 778)
1176 – Mikhail of Vladimir, Russian prince
1351 – Margareta Ebner, German nun (b. 1291)
1597 – Willem Barentsz, Dutch cartographer and explorer (b. 1550)
1605 – Feodor II of Russia (b. 1589)
1668 – Heinrich Roth, German missionary and scholar (b. 1620)
1776 – Benjamin Huntsman, English businessman (b. 1704)
1787 – Carl Friedrich Abel, German composer (b. 1723)
1800 – Abraham Gotthelf Kästner, German mathematician (b. 1719)
1810 – Axel von Fersen the Younger, Swedish general and politician (b. 1755)
1815 – Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, French general (b. 1766)
1820 – Manuel Belgrano, Argentinian general, economist, and politician (b. 1770)
1837 – William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1765)
1840 – Pierre Claude François Daunou, French politician (b. 1761)
1847 – Juan Larrea, Argentinian captain and politician (b. 1782)
1869 – Hijikata Toshizō, Japanese commander (b. 1835)
1870 – Jules de Goncourt, French author (b. 1830)
1872 – Élie Frédéric Forey, French general (b. 1804)
1875 – Joseph Meek, American police officer and politician (b. 1810)
1888 – Johannes Zukertort, Polish chess player (b. 1842)
1906 – John Clayton Adams, English painter (b. 1840)
1909 – Friedrich Martens, Estonian-Russian diplomat, lawyer and historian (b. 1845)
1925 – Josef Breuer, Austrian physician (b. 1842)
1929 – Emmanouil Benakis, Greek merchant and politician (b. 1843)
1938 – Nikolai Janson, Soviet politician (b. 1882)
1945 – Luís Fernando de Orleans y Borbón, Spanish son of Infanta Eulalia of Spain (b. 1888)
1945 – Bruno Frank, German author, poet, and playwright (b. 1878)
1947 – Bugsy Siegel, American mobster (b. 1906)
1952 – Luigi Fagioli, Italian race car driver (b. 1898)
1958 – Kurt Alder, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1902)
1963 – Raphaël Salem, Greek-French mathematician (b. 1898)
1965 – Bernard Baruch, American financier and politician (b. 1870)
1966 – Georges Lemaître, Belgian priest, physicist, and astronomer (b. 1894)
1969 – Shiekh Mohamed Siddiq El-Minshawi Holy Quran recitor (b.1920)
1972 – Howard Deering Johnson, American businessman, founded Howard Johnson's (b. 1897)
1974 – Horace Lindrum, Australian snooker player (b. 1912)
1976 – Lou Klein, American baseball player and coach (b. 1918)
1978 – Mark Robson, Canadian-American director and producer (b. 1913)
1984 – Estelle Winwood, English-American actress (b. 1883)
1995 – Emil Cioran, Romanian-French philosopher (b. 1911)
1996 – Jim Ellison, American musician (Material Issue) (b. 1964)
1997 – Lawrence Payton, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Four Tops) (b. 1938)
1998 – Conrad Schumann, German soldier (b. 1942)
1999 – Clifton Fadiman, American author (b. 1902)
2001 – Gina Cigna, French-Italian soprano (b. 1900)
2002 – Erwin Chargaff, Austrian-American biochemist (b. 1905)
2002 – Tinus Osendarp, Dutch runner (b. 1916)
2003 – Bob Stump, American politician (b. 1927)
2005 – Larry Collins, American author (b. 1929)
2005 – Jack Kilby, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1923)
2006 – Billy Johnson, American baseball player (b. 1918)
2006 – Claydes Charles Smith, American guitarist (Kool & the Gang) (b. 1948)
2007 – Trevor Henry, New Zealand lawyer and judge (b. 1902)
2009 – Neda Agha-Soltan, Iranian student and activist (b. 1982)
2010 – Roberto Rosato, Italian footballer (b. 1943)
2010 – Harry B. Whittington, English palaeontologist (b. 1916)
2011 – Ryan Dunn, American stuntman and actor (b. 1977)
2012 – Judy Agnew, American wife of Spiro Agnew, 29th Second Lady of the United States (b. 1921)
2012 – Alcides Mendoza Castro, Peruvian archbishop (b. 1928)
2012 – Robert J. Kelleher, American tennis player and judge (b. 1913)
2012 – LeRoy Neiman, American painter (b. 1921)
2012 – Andrew Sarris, American critic (b. 1928)
2012 – Michael Westmacott, English mountaineer (b. 1925)
2013 – Diosa Costello, Puerto Rician-American actress and singer (b. 1913)
2013 – Vern Pyles, American politician (b. 1919)
2013 – Dicky Rutnagur, Indian journalist (b. 1931)
2013 – Ingvar Rydell, Swedish footballer (b. 1922)
2013 – Jean-Louis Scherrer, French fashion designer (b. 1935)
2013 – Jeffrey Smart, Australian painter (b. 1921)
2013 – John David Wilson, English animator and producer (b. 1919)
2013 – Wu Zhengyi, Chinese botanist (b. 1916)

21 June Events

217 BC – The Romans, led by Gaius Flaminius, are ambushed and defeated by Hannibal at the Battle of Lake Trasimene.
533 – A Byzantine expeditionary fleet under Belisarius sails from Constantinople to attack the Vandals in Africa, via Greece and Sicily.
1307 – Külüg Khan is enthroned as Khagan of the Mongols and Wuzong of the Yuan.
1529 – French forces are driven out of northern Italy by Spain at the Battle of Landriano during the War of the League of Cognac.
1582 – Sengoku jidai: Oda Nobunaga, the most powerful of the Japanese daimyo, was forced to commit suicide by his own general Akechi Mitsuhide.
1621 – Execution of 27 Czech noblemen on the Old Town Square in Prague as a consequence of the Battle of White Mountain.
1734 – In Montreal in New France, a slave known by the French name of Marie-Joseph Angélique is put to death, having been convicted of setting the fire that destroyed much of the city.
1749 – Halifax, Nova Scotia, is founded.
1768 – James Otis, Jr. offends the King and Parliament in a speech to the Massachusetts General Court.
1788 – New Hampshire ratifies the Constitution of the United States and is admitted as the 9th state in the United States.
1791 – King Louis XVI of France and his immediate family begin the Flight to Varennes during the French Revolution.
1798 – Irish Rebellion of 1798: The British Army defeats Irish rebels at the Battle of Vinegar Hill.
1813 – Peninsular War: Battle of Victoria.
1824 – Greek War of Independence: Egyptian forces capture Psara in the Aegean Sea.
1826 – Maniots defeat Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha in the Battle of Vergas.
1848 – In the Wallachian Revolution, Ion Heliade Rădulescu and Christian Tell issue the Proclamation of Islaz and create a new republican government.
1854 – The first Victoria Cross is awarded during the bombardment of Bomarsund in the Åland Islands.
1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road begins.
1864 – New Zealand Land Wars: The Tauranga Campaign ends.
1877 – The Molly Maguires, ten Irish immigrants convicted of murder, are hanged at the Schuylkill County and Carbon County, Pennsylvania prisons.
1898 – The United States captures Guam from Spain.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion. China formally declares war on the United States, Britain, Germany, France and Japan, as an edict issued from the Empress Dowager Cixi.
1915 – The U.S. Supreme Court hands down its decision in Guinn v. United States 238 US 347 1915, striking down an Oklahoma law denying the right to vote to some citizens.
1919 – The Royal Canadian Mounted Police fire a volley into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two, during the Winnipeg General Strike.
1919 – Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Orkney. The nine sailors killed are the last casualties of World War I.
1929 – An agreement brokered by U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow ends the Cristero War in Mexico.
1930 – One-year conscription comes into force in France.
1940 – The first successful west-to-east navigation of Northwest Passage begins at Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
1942 – World War II: Tobruk falls to Italian and German forces.
1942 – World War II: A Japanese submarine surfaces near the Columbia River in Oregon, firing 17 shells at nearby Fort Stevens in one of only a handful of attacks by Japan against the United States mainland.
1945 – World War II: The Battle of Okinawa ends when the organized resistance of Imperial Japanese Army forces collapses in the Mabuni area on the southern tip of the main island.
1948 – Columbia Records introduces the long-playing record album in a public demonstration at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, New York.
1952 – The Philippine School of Commerce, through a republic act, is converted to Philippine College of Commerce, later to be the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
1957 – Ellen Fairclough is sworn in as Canada's first female Cabinet Minister.
1963 – Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini is elected as Pope Paul VI.
1964 – Three civil rights workers, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney and Mickey Schwerner, are murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, United States, by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
1970 – Penn Central declares Section 77 bankruptcy, largest ever US corporate bankruptcy up to this date.
1973 – In handing down the decision in Miller v. California 413 US 15, the Supreme Court of the United States establishes the Miller Test for obscenity in U.S. law.
1977 – Bülent Ecevit, of the CHP forms the new government of Turkey.
1982 – John Hinckley is found not guilty by reason of insanity for the attempted assassination of U.S. President Ronald Reagan.
2000 – Section 28 (of the Local Government Act 1988), outlawing the 'promotion' of homosexuality in the United Kingdom, is repealed in Scotland with a 99 to 17 vote.
2001 – A federal grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia, indicts 13 Saudis and a Lebanese in the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 American servicemen.
2004 – SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded spaceplane to achieve spaceflight.
2006 – Pluto's newly discovered moons are officially named Nix & Hydra.
2009 – Greenland assumes self-rule.

21 June Births

1002 – Pope Leo IX (d. 1054)
1226 – Bolesław V the Chaste, Polish husband of Kinga of Poland (d. 1279)
1528 – Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1603)
1535 – Leonhard Rauwolf, German physician and botanist (d. 1596)
1588 – George Wither, English writer (d. 1667)
1639 – Increase Mather, American minister and author (d. 1723)
1646 – Maria Francisca of Savoy (d. 1683)
1676 – Anthony Collins, English philosopher (d. 1729)
1703 – Joseph Lieutaud, French physician (d. 1780)
1706 – John Dollond, English optician (d. 1761)
1710 – James Short, Scottish mathematician and optician (d. 1768)
1712 – Luc Urbain de Bouexic, comte de Guichen, French admiral (d. 1790)
1730 – Motoori Norinaga, Japanese scholar (d. 1801)
1732 – Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, German composer (d. 1791)
1736 – Enoch Poor, American general (d. 1780)
1738 – Gottlieb Christoph Harless, German scholar (d. 1815)
1741 – Prince Benedetto, Duke of Chablais (d. 1808)
1750 – Pierre-Nicolas Beauvallet, French sculptor (d. 1818)
1759 – Alexander J. Dallas, American lawyer and politician, 6th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1817)
1763 – Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, French philosopher (d. 1845)
1764 – Sidney Smith, English admiral (d. 1840)
1774 – Daniel D. Tompkins, American politician, 6th Vice President of the United States (d. 1825)
1781 – Siméon Denis Poisson, French mathematician and physicist (d. 1840)
1786 – Charles Edward Horn, English singer-songwriter (d. 1849)
1788 – Princess Augusta of Bavaria (d. 1850)
1791 – Robert Napier, Scottish engineer (d. 1876)
1792 – Ferdinand Christian Baur, German theologian (d. 1860)
1805 – Charles Thomas Jackson, American physician (d. 1880)
1811 – Carlo Matteucci, Italian physicist (d. 1868)
1814 – Anton Nuhn, German physician (d. 1889)
1823 – Jean Chacornac, French astronomer (d. 1873)
1825 – Thomas Edward Cliffe Leslie, Irish jurist and economist (d. 1882)
1825 – William Stubbs, English bishop (d. 1901)
1828 – Ferdinand André Fouqué, French geologist (d. 1904)
1834 – Frans de Cort, Flemish author (d. 1878)
1834 – Elizabeth Jane Caulfeild, Countess of Charlemont (d. 1882)
1839 – Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, Brazilian author, poet, and playwright (d. 1908)
1846 – Marion Adams-Acton, British novelist (d. 1928)
1850 – Daniel Carter Beard, American author and illustrator, co-founded the Boy Scouts of America (d. 1941)
1850 – Enrico Cecchetti, Italian ballet dancer (d. 1928)
1858 – Medardo Rosso, Italian sculptor (d. 1928)
1859 – Henry Ossawa Tanner, American painter (d. 1937)
1862 – Damrong Rajanubhab, Thai historian (d. 1943)
1863 – Max Wolf, German astronomer (d. 1932)
1864 – Heinrich Wölfflin, Swiss historian (d. 1945)
1865 – Herbert Brewer, English composer and organist (d. 1928)
1868 – Edwin Stephen Goodrich, English zoologist (d. 1946)
1870 – Clara Immerwahr, German chemist (d. 1915)
1870 – Anthony Michell, Australian mechanical engineer (d. 1959)
1874 – Jacob Linzbach, Estonian linguist (d. 1953)
1876 – Willem Hendrik Keesom, Dutch physicist (d. 1956)
1880 – Arnold Gesell, American psychologist and pediatrician (d. 1961)
1880 – Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp, English economist and civil servant (d. 1941)
1882 – Lluís Companys, Spanish politician, 123rd President of Catalonia (d. 1940)
1882 – Adrianus de Jong, Dutch fencer (d. 1966)
1882 – Rockwell Kent, American painter and illustrator (d. 1971)
1883 – Feodor Gladkov, Russian author and educator (d. 1958)
1883 – Daisy Turner, American author (d. 1988)
1884 – Claude Auchinleck, English field marshal (d. 1981)
1887 – Norman L. Bowen, Canadian petrologist (d. 1956)
1889 – Ralph Craig, American sprinter (d. 1972)
1890 – Frank S. Land, American businessman, founded DeMolay International (d. 1959)
1891 – Pier Luigi Nervi, Italian architect and engineer, co-designed the Pirelli Tower and Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption (d. 1979)
1891 – Hermann Scherchen, German conductor (d. 1966)
1892 – Reinhold Niebuhr, American theologian (d. 1971)
1893 – Alois Hába, Czech composer (d. 1973)
1894 – F. R. G. Heaf, British physician (d. 1973)
1894 – Milward Kennedy, English journalist and civil servant (d. 1968)
1896 – Charles Momsen, American admiral, invented the Momsen lung (d. 1967)
1898 – Donald C. Peattie, American botanist and author (d. 1964)
1899 – Pavel Haas, Czech composer (d. 1944)
1899 – Miles Watson, 2nd Baron Manton, English horse breeder (d. 1968)
1902 – Howie Morenz, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 1937)
1903 – Hermann Engelhard, German middle-distance runner (d. 1984)
1903 – Al Hirschfeld, American caricaturist (d. 2003)
1905 – Jacques Goddet, French journalist (d. 2000)
1905 – Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher and author (d. 1980)
1906 – Helene Costello, American actress (d. 1957)
1906 – Nusch Éluard, French model (d. 1946)
1906 – Harold Spina, American composer (d. 1997)
1906 – Grete Sultan, German-American pianist (d. 2005)
1908 – William Frankena, American philosopher (d. 1994)
1909 – Helmut Möckel, German politician (d. 1945)
1910 – Aleksandr Tvardovsky, Russian poet (d. 1971)
1911 – Irving Fein, American producer (d. 2012)
1911 – Chester Wilmot, Australian journalist (d. 1954)
1912 – Kazimierz Leski, Polish pilot and engineer (d. 2000)
1912 – Mary McCarthy, American author (d. 1989)
1912 – Vishnu Prabhakar, Indian author (d. 2009)
1913 – Madihe Pannaseeha Thero, Sri Lankan monk (d. 2003)
1914 – William Vickrey, Canadian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996)
1916 – Joseph Cyril Bamford, English businessman, founded J. C. Bamford (d. 2001)
1916 – Buddy O'Connor, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1977)
1918 – Robert A. Boyd, Canadian engineer (d. 2006)
1918 – James Joll, English historian and scholar (d. 1994)
1918 – Eddie Lopat, American baseball player, coach, and manager (d. 1992)
1918 – J. Clyde Mitchell, English sociologist and anthropologist (d. 1995)
1918 – Dee Molenaar, American mountaineer, painter, and author
1918 – Robert Roosa, American economist and banker (d. 1993)
1918 – Tibor Szele, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1955)
1918 – Josephine Webb, American engineer
1919 – Antonia Mesina, Italian Roman Catholic martyr, blessed (d. 1935)
1919 – Gérard Pelletier, Canadian journalist and politician (d. 1997)
1919 – Vladimir Simagin, Russian chess player (d. 1968)
1919 – Paolo Soleri, Italian-American architect, designed the Cosanti (d. 2013)
1920 – Hans Gerschwiler, Swiss figure skater
1921 – Jean de Broglie, French politician (d. 1976)
1921 – Judy Holliday, American actress and singer (d. 1965)
1921 – Jane Russell, American actress and singer (d. 2011)
1921 – William Edwin Self, American actor, producer, and production manager (d. 2010)
1922 – Heino Lipp, Estonian decathlete, shot putter and discus thrower (d. 2006)
1923 – Peter Flanigan, American banker and civil servant (d. 2013)
1923 – Jacques Hébert, Canadian journalist and politician (d. 2007)
1924 – Ezzatolah Entezami, Iranian actor
1924 – Wally Fawkes, British-Canadian cartoonist
1924 – Pontus Hultén, Swedish art collector (d. 2006)
1924 – Jean Laplanche, French psychoanalyst (d. 2012)
1924 – Max McNab, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 2007)
1925 – Giovanni Spadolini, Italian politician, 45th Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1994)
1925 – Maureen Stapleton, American actress (d. 2006)
1926 – George A. Burton, American soldier, accountant, and politician (d. 2014)
1926 – Conrad Hall, French-American cinematographer (d. 2003)
1926 – Muhsin Mahdi, Iraqi-American islamologist and philosopher (d. 2007)
1927 – Carl Stokes, American politician, 51st Mayor of Cleveland (d. 1996)
1928 – Wolfgang Haken, German-American mathematician
1929 – Abdel Halim Hafez, Egyptian singer and actor (d. 1977)
1929 – Alexandre Lagoya, Egyptian guitarist (d. 1999)
1930 – Gerald Kaufman, English politician
1930 – Mike McCormack, American football player and coach (d. 2013)
1931 – Zlatko Grgić, Croatian-Canadian animator (d. 1988)
1931 – Margaret Heckler, American politician, 15th United States Secretary of Health and Human Services
1931 – Jan Trąbka, Polish neurologist (d. 2012)
1932 – Bernard Ingham, English journalist and civil servant
1932 – Lalo Schifrin, Argentinian pianist, composer, and conductor
1932 – O. C. Smith, American singer (d. 2001)
1933 – Bernie Kopell, American actor and screenwriter
1934 – Maggie Jones, English actress (d. 2009)
1934 – Ken Matthews, English race walker
1935 – Monte Markham, American actor, director, and producer
1935 – Françoise Sagan, French author and playwright (d. 2004)
1936 – Joseph Gosnell, Canadian tribal leader
1937 – John Edrich, English cricketer
1938 – John W. Dower, American historian and author
1938 – Ron Ely, American actor
1938 – Michael M. Richter, German mathematician and computer scientist
1938 – Eddie Adcock, American singer and banjo player
1939 – Rubén Berríos, Puerto Rican lawyer and politician
1940 – Mariette Hartley, American actress
1940 – Enn Klooren, Estonian actor (d. 2011)
1940 – Michael Ruse, Canadian philosopher
1940 – Marika Green, Swedish-French actress
1941 – Aloysius Paul D'Souza, Indian bishop
1941 – Joe Flaherty, American-Canadian actor, screenwriter, and producer
1941 – Cecil Gordon, American race car driver (d. 2012)
1941 – Lyman Ward, Canadian actor
1942 – Clive Brooke, British trade unionist
1942 – Dan Henning, American football player and coach
1942 – Marjorie Margolies, American journalist and politician
1942 – Henry S. Taylor, American author and poet
1942 – Togo D. West, Jr., American lawyer and politician
1943 – Salomé, Spanish singer
1943 – Eumir Deodato, Brazilian pianist, composer, and producer
1943 – Diane Marleau, Canadian accountant and politician (d. 2013)
1943 – Brian Sternberg, American pole vaulter (d. 2013)
1944 – Ray Davies, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Kinks)
1944 – Tony Scott, English-American director and producer (d. 2012)
1944 – Corinna Tsopei, Greek model and actress, Miss Universe 1964
1945 – Adam Zagajewski, Polish author and poet
1946 – Rob Dyson, American race car driver
1946 – Per Eklund, Swedish race car driver
1946 – Kate Hoey, British politician
1946 – Brenda Holloway, American singer-songwriter
1946 – Trond Kirkvaag, Norwegian actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 2007)
1946 – Malcolm Rifkind, British politician
1946 – Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi, Iraqi-English businessman, founder of M&C Saatchi and Saatchi & Saatchi
1947 – Meredith Baxter, American actress and producer
1947 – Shirin Ebadi, Iranian lawyer, judge, and activist, Nobel Prize laureate
1947 – Michael Gross, American actor
1947 – Joey Molland, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (Badfinger and Natural Gas)
1947 – Fernando Savater, Spanish philosopher and author
1948 – Jovan Aćimović, Serbian footballer
1948 – Ian McEwan, English author and screenwriter
1948 – Lionel Rose, Australian boxer (d. 2011)
1948 – Andrzej Sapkowski, Polish author
1948 – Philippe Sarde, French composer
1949 – John Agard, Afro-Guyanese playwright, poet and children's writer
1949 – Derek Emslie, British judge
1950 – Anne Carson, Canadian poet
1950 – Joey Kramer, American drummer and songwriter (Aerosmith)
1950 – Gérard Lanvin, French actor
1950 – Vasilis Papakonstantinou, Greek singer-songwriter and guitarist
1950 – Enn Reitel, Scottish actor and screenwriter
1951 – Jim Douglas, American politician, 80th Governor of Vermont
1951 – Terence Etherton, British judge
1951 – Nils Lofgren, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (E Street Band and Crazy Horse)
1951 – Mona-Lisa Pursiainen, Finnish sprinter (d. 2000)
1952 – Jeremy Coney, New Zealand-English cricketer and sportscaster
1952 – Kōichi Mashimo, Japanese director and screenwriter
1953 – Benazir Bhutto, Pakistani politician, 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan (d. 2007)
1953 – Maurice Boucher, Canadian drug trafficker and murderer
1954 – Müjde Ar, Turkish actress
1954 – Brian Barwick, British sports administrator
1954 – Mar Guðmundsson, Icelandic economist
1954 – Mark Kimmitt, American general
1954 – Anne Kirkbride, English actress
1954 – Robert Menasse, Austrian author
1954 – Robert Pastorelli, American actor (d. 2004)
1954 – Kathy Sullivan, American lawyer and politician
1955 – Aloysius Amwano, Nauruan politician
1955 – Tim Bray, Canadian software developer, co-founded the Open Text Corporation
1955 – Jean-Pierre Mader, French singer-songwriter and producer
1955 – Leigh McCloskey, American actor and author
1955 – Michel Platini, French footballer and manager
1957 – Michael Bowen, American actor
1957 – Berkeley Breathed, American author and illustrator
1957 – Lucien DeBlois, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
1957 – Vladimir Romanovsky, Russian canoe racer (d. 2013)
1957 – Luis Antonio Tagle, Filipino cardinal
1957 – Mark Brzezicki, English rock drummer (Big Country, The Cult, Ultravox, and Procol Harum)
1958 – Gennady Padalka, Russian colonel and astronaut
1959 – Tom Chambers, American basketball player
1959 – Marcella Detroit, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Shakespear's Sister)
1959 – Kathy Mattea, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1960 – Kevin Harlan, American sportscaster
1961 – Karen Barber, English ice dancer
1961 – Manu Chao, French singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Mano Negra, Hot Pants, and Los Carayos)
1961 – Sascha Konietzko, German keyboard player and producer (KMFDM, MDFMK, Excessive Force, Schwein, and KGC)
1961 – Kip Winger, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Winger)
1962 – Takeshi Asami, Japanese race car driver
1962 – Viktor Tsoi, Russian singer-songwriter and guitarist (Kino) (d. 1990)
1963 – Luc(as) de Groot, Dutch type designer
1963 – Dario Marianelli, Italian composer
1964 – Sammi Davis, English actress
1964 – David Morrissey, English actor and director
1964 – Dimitris Papaioannou, Greek director and choreographer
1964 – Doug Savant, American actor
1965 – Yang Liwei, Chinese general, pilot, and astronaut
1965 – Lana Wachowski, American film director
1966 – Rudi Bakhtiar, Iranian American journalist
1966 – Gretchen Carlson, American journalist
1966 – Sergey Grishin, Russian businessman and billionaire
1966 – Mancow Muller, American radio and television personality
1966 – Pierre Thorsson, Swedish handball player
1966 – Nan Woods, American actress
1967 – Jim Breuer, American comedian and actor
1967 – Derrick Coleman, American basketball player
1967 – Pierre Omidyar, French-American businessman, founded eBay
1967 – Carrie Preston, American actress, director, and producer
1967 – Yingluck Shinawatra, Thai businesswoman and politician, 28th Prime Minister of Thailand
1968 – Sonique, English singer-songwriter and DJ
1969 – Harun Isa, Albanian footballer
1969 – Gabriella Paruzzi, Italian skier
1970 – Sindee Coxx, American porn actress
1970 – Pete Rock, American rapper and producer (Pete Rock & CL Smooth)
1970 – Eric Reed, American pianist and composer (Black Note)
1971 – Anette Olzon, Swedish singer (Nightwish and Alyson Avenue)
1972 – Nobuharu Asahara, Japanese sprinter and long jumper
1972 – Neil Doak, Irish cricketer and rugby player
1972 – Alon Hilu, Israeli author
1972 – Allison Moorer, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1973 – Juliette Lewis, American actress and singer (Juliette and the Licks)
1973 – Pascal Rhéaume, Canadian ice hockey player
1974 – Natasha Desborough, English radio host, producer, and author
1974 – Neely Jenkins, American bass player (Park Ave. and Tilly and the Wall)
1974 – Rob Kelly, American football player
1974 – Craig Lowndes, Australian race car driver
1974 – Eero Palm, Estonian architect
1974 – Flavio Roma, Italian footballer
1976 – Antonio Cochran, American football player
1976 – Mike Einziger, American guitarist and songwriter (Incubus and Time Lapse Consortium)
1976 – Nigel Lappin, Australian footballer and coach
1977 – Michael Gomez, Irish boxer
1977 – Jochen Hecht, German ice hockey player
1977 – Sarah Slean, Canadian singer-songwriter, pianist, and actress
1978 – Rim'K, French rapper (113)
1978 – Erica Durance, Canadian actress and producer
1978 – Jack Guzman, Colombian-American actor
1978 – Luke Kirby, Canadian actor
1978 – Matt Kuchar, American golfer
1978 – Jean-Pascal Lacoste, French singer and actor
1978 – Cristiano Lupatelli, Italian footballer
1978 – Dejan Ognjanović, Montenegrin footballer
1978 – Anthony Towns, Australian computer programmer
1979 – Kostas Katsouranis, Greek footballer
1979 – Chris Pratt, American actor
1980 – Luca Anania, Italian footballer
1980 – Richard Jefferson, American basketball player
1980 – Sendy Rleal, Dominican baseball player
1981 – David Bortolussi, French-Italian rugby player
1981 – Yann Danis, Canadian ice hockey player
1981 – Simon Delestre, French horse rider
1981 – Brandon Flowers, American singer-songwriter (The Killers)
1981 – Garrett Jones, American baseball player
1981 – Brad Walker, American pole vaulter
1982 – Rob Mills, Australian singer-songwriter and actor
1982 – Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
1983 – Edward Snowden, American intelligence contractor and whistleblower
1983 – Marlon Davis, English actor and stand-up comedian
1984 – Jujubee, American drag queen performer
1984 – Franck Perera, French race car driver
1984 – LaRoche Jackson American football player
1985 – Kris Allen, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1985 – Sentayehu Ejigu, Ethiopian long-distance runner
1985 – Anthony Morelli, American football player
1985 – Byron Schammer, Australian footballer
1986 – Lana Del Rey, American singer-songwriter
1986 – Hideaki Wakui, Japanese baseball player
1987 – Pablo Barrera, Mexican footballer
1987 – Sebastian Prödl, Austrian footballer
1987 – Kim Ryeowook, South Korean singer-songwriter and actor (Super Junior and Super Junior-M)
1987 – Dale Thomas, Australian footballer
1988 – Allyssa DeHaan, American basketball and volleyball player
1988 – Alejandro Ramírez, Costa Rican chess player
1988 – Tunnet Taimla, Estonian renju player
1988 – Paolo Tornaghi, Italian footballer
1989 – Finn Atkins, English actress
1989 – Abubaker Kaki, Sudanese runner
1989 – Madison Parker, Hungarian porn actress
1989 – Patrick Schönfeld, German footballer
1989 – Jascha Washington, American actor
1990 – Pietro Baccolo, Italian footballer
1990 – Sandra Perković, Croatian discus thrower
1990 – Kasumi Suzuki, Japanese actress
1991 – Gaël Kakuta, French footballer
1992 – Max Schneider, American singer-songwriter and actor
1994 – Başak Eraydın, Turkish tennis player
1994 – Chisato Okai, Japanese singer and actress (Cute and Tanpopo)
1997 – Rebecca Black, American singer
1997 – Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg, Austrian race car driver
2001 – Alexandra Obolentseva, Russian chess player
2001 – Eleanor Worthington Cox, English actress

21 June Deaths

1040 – Fulk III, Count of Anjou (b. 972)
1171 – Walter de Luci, English brother of Richard de Luci (b. 1103)
1205 – Enrico Dandolo, Italian noble, 42nd Doge of Venice (b. 1107)
1208 – Philip of Swabia (b. 1177)
1305 – Wenceslaus II of Bohemia (b. 1271)
1377 – Edward III of England (b. 1312)
1421 – Jean Le Maingre, French marshal (b. 1366)
1521 – Leonardo Loredan, Italian noble, 76th Doge of Venice (b. 1436)
1527 – Niccolò Machiavelli, Italian historian and author (b. 1469)
1529 – John Skelton, English poet (b. 1460)
1547 – Sebastiano del Piombo, Italian painter (b. 1485)
1558 – Piero Strozzi, Italian military leader (b. 1510)
1582 – Oda Nobunaga, Japanese warlord (b. 1534)
1591 – Aloysius Gonzaga, Italian saint (b. 1568)
1596 – Jean Liebault, French agronomist (b. 1535)
1621 – Louis III, Cardinal of Guise (b. 1575)
1621 – Kryštof Harant, Czech soldier and composer (b. 1564)
1631 – John Smith, English admiral and explorer (b. 1580)
1652 – Inigo Jones, English architect, designed the Queen's House and Wilton House (b. 1573)
1661 – Andrea Sacchi, Italian painter (b. 1599)
1737 – Matthieu Marais, French jurist (b. 1664)
1738 – Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, English politician (b. 1674)
1796 – Richard Gridley, American soldier and engineer (b. 1710)
1824 – Étienne Aignan, French playwright (b. 1773)
1865 – Frances Adeline Seward, American wife of William H. Seward (b. 1824)
1874 – Anders Jonas Ångström, Swedish physicist (b. 1814)
1876 – Antonio López de Santa Anna, Mexican general and politician 8th President of Mexico (b. 1794)
1893 – Leland Stanford, American industrialist and politician, 8th Governor of California (b. 1824)
1908 – Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer (b. 1844)
1914 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian author, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1843)
1917 – Matthias Zurbriggen, Swiss mountaineer (b. 1856)
1926 – Lorne Currie, English sailor (b. 1871)
1929 – Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, English sociologist, journalist, and politician (b. 1864)
1934 – Thorne Smith, American author (b. 1892)
1940 – Smedley Butler, American general, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1881)
1951 – Charles Dillon Perrine, American astronomer (b. 1867)
1951 – Gustave Sandras, French gymnast (b. 1872)
1952 – Wop May, Canadian pilot and captain (b. 1896)
1954 – Gideon Sundback, Swedish-American engineer, developed the zipper (b. 1880)
1957 – Claude Farrère, French author (b. 1876)
1957 – Johannes Stark, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1874)
1964 – James Chaney, American activist (b. 1943)
1964 – Andrew Goodman, American activist (b. 1943)
1964 – Michael Schwerner, American activist (b. 1939)
1968 – Ingeborg Spangsfeldt, Danish actress (b. 1895)
1969 – Maureen Connolly, American tennis player (b. 1934)
1970 – Sukarno, Indonesian politician, 1st President of Indonesia (b. 1901)
1970 – Piers Courage, English Grand Prix driver (b. 1942)
1976 – Margaret Herrick, American librarian (b. 1902)
1979 – Angus MacLise, American drummer and songwriter (Velvet Underground and Theatre of Eternal Music) (b. 1938)
1980 – Bert Kaempfert, German conductor and composer (b. 1923)
1981 – Don Figlozzi, American animator (b. 1909)
1985 – Ettore Boiardi, Italian-American chef, founded Chef Boyardee (b. 1897)
1985 – Tage Erlander, Swedish politician, 25th Prime Minister of Sweden (b. 1901)
1986 – Assi Rahbani, Lebanese singer-songwriter and producer (Rahbani Brothers) (b. 1923)
1987 – Madman Muntz, American businessman and engineer, founded the Muntz Car Company (b. 1914)
1990 – Cedric Belfrage, English-American journalist and author, co-founded the National Guardian (b. 1904)
1990 – June Christy, American singer (b. 1925)
1992 – Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah, Bengali poet (b. 1956)
1992 – Li Xiannian, Chinese politician, 3rd President of the People's Republic of China (b. 1909)
1993 – Ticho Parly, Danish tenor (b. 1928)
1994 – William Wilson Morgan, American astronomer and astrophysicist (b. 1906)
1997 – Shintaro Katsu, Japanese actor, singer, director, and producer (b. 1931)
1997 – Fidel Velázquez Sánchez, Mexican union leader (b. 1900)
1998 – Anastasio Ballestrero, Italian cardinal (b. 1913)
1998 – Al Campanis, American baseball player (b. 1916)
1999 – Kami, Japanese drummer (Malice Mizer) (b. 1973)
2000 – Alan Hovhaness, Armenian-American composer (b. 1911)
2001 – John Lee Hooker, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1916)
2001 – Soad Hosny, Egyptian actress (b. 1942)
2001 – Carroll O'Connor, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1924)
2002 – Timothy Findley, Canadian author and playwright (b. 1930)
2003 – Jason Moran, Australian mobster (b. 1967)
2003 – Roger Neilson, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (b. 1934)
2003 – Leon Uris, American author (b. 1924)
2004 – Leonel Brizola, Brazilian politician (b. 1922)
2004 – Ruth Leach Amonette, American businesswoman (b. 1916)
2005 – Jaime Sin, Filipino archbishop (b. 1928)
2006 – Jared C. Monti, American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1975)
2007 – Bob Evans, American businessman, founded Bob Evans Restaurants (b. 1918)
2008 – Scott Kalitta, American race car driver (b. 1962)
2008 – Kermit Love, American actor and puppeteer (b. 1916)
2010 – Russell Ash, English author (b. 1946)
2010 – Chris Sievey, English musician and comedian (Frank Sidebottom) (b. 1955)
2010 – Irwin Barker, Canadian actor and screenwriter (b. 1956)
2011 – Robert Kroetsch, Canadian author and poet (b. 1927)
2012 – J. Michael Adams, American academic (b. 1947)
2012 – Richard Adler, American composer and producer (b. 1921)
2012 – Abid Hussain, Indian economist and diplomat (b. 1926)
2012 – Sunil Janah, Indian photographer and journalist (b. 1918)
2012 – Joviano de Lima Júnior, Brazilian archbishop (b. 1942)
2012 – Radha Vinod Raju, Indian police officer (b. 1949)
2012 – Gilbert Blaize Rego, Indian bishop (b. 1921)
2012 – Anna Schwartz, American economist and author (b. 1915)
2012 – Teddy Scott, Scottish footballer and coach (b. 1929)
2012 – Ramaz Shengelia, Georgian footballer (b. 1957)
2012 – Drew Turnbull, Scottish rugby player (b. 1930)
2013 – Huáscar Aparicio, Bolivian singer (b. 1972)
2013 – Diane Clare, English actress (b. 1938)
2013 – N. Dennis, Indian politician (b. 1929)
2013 – Jerry Dexter, American voice actor (b. 1935)
2013 – Genaro García, Mexican boxer (b. 1977)
2013 – Margret Göbl, German figure skater (b. 1938)
2013 – James P. Gordon, American physicist (b. 1928)
2013 – Bernard Hunt, English golfer (b. 1930)
2013 – Mary Love, American singer (b. 1943)
2013 – Alen Pamić, Croatian footballer (b. 1989)
2013 – Elliott Reid, American actor and screenwriter (b. 1920)
2013 – Wendy Saddington, Australian singer (Chain) (b. 1949)

Jun 21, 1788:
U.S. Constitution ratified

New Hampshire becomes the ninth and last necessary state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, thereby making the document the law of the land.

By 1786, defects in the post-Revolutionary War Articles of Confederation were apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce. Congress endorsed a plan to draft a new constitution, and on May 25, 1787, the Constitutional Convention convened at Independence Hall in Philadelphia. On September 17, 1787, after three months of debate moderated by convention president George Washington, the new U.S. constitution, which created a strong federal government with an intricate system of checks and balances, was signed by 38 of the 41 delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine of the 13 states.

Beginning on December 7, five states--Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut--ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document, as it failed to reserve undelegated powers to the states and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. In February 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the U.S. Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789. In June, Virginia ratified the Constitution, followed by New York in July.

On September 25, 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted 12 amendments to the U.S. Constitution--the Bill of Rights--and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of these amendments were ratified in 1791. In November 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. Rhode Island, which opposed federal control of currency and was critical of compromise on the issue of slavery, resisted ratifying the Constitution until the U.S. government threatened to sever commercial relations with the state. On May 29, 1790, Rhode Island voted by two votes to ratify the document, and the last of the original 13 colonies joined the United States. Today the U.S. Constitution is the oldest written constitution in operation in the world.

Jun 21, 1964:
Civil rights workers disappear

In Neshoba County in central Mississippi, three civil rights field workers disappear after investigating the burning of an African American church by the Ku Klux Klan. Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, both white New Yorkers, had traveled to heavily segregated Mississippi in 1964 to help organize civil rights efforts on behalf of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The third man, James Chaney, was a local African American man who had joined CORE in 1963. The disappearance of the three young men garnered national attention and led to a massive FBI investigation that was code-named MIBURN, for "Mississippi Burning."

Michael Schwerner, who arrived in Mississippi as a CORE field worker in January 1964, aroused the animosity of white supremacists after he organized a successful black boycott of a variety store in the city of Meridian and led voting registration efforts for African Americans. In May, Sam Bowers, the Imperial Wizard of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, sent word that the 24-year-old Schwerner, nicknamed "Goatee" and "Jew-Boy" by the KKK, was to be eliminated. On the evening of June 16, two dozen armed Klansmen descended on Mt. Zion Methodist Church, an African-American church in Neshoba County that Schwerner had arranged to use as a "Freedom School." Schwerner was not there at the time, but the Klansmen beat several African Americans present and then torched the church.

On June 20, Schwerner returned from a civil-rights training session in Ohio with 21-year-old James Chaney and 20-year-old Andrew Goodman, a new recruit to CORE. The next day--June 21--the three went to investigate the burning of the church in Neshoba. While attempting to drive back to Meridian, they were stopped by Neshoba County Deputy Sheriff Cecil Price just inside the city limits of Philadelphia, the county seat. Price, a member of the KKK who had been looking out for Schwerner or other civil rights workers, threw them in the Neshoba County jail, allegedly under suspicion for church arson.

After seven hours in jail, during which the men were not allowed to make a phone call, Price released them on bail. After escorting them out of town, the deputy returned to Philadelphia to drop off an accompanying Philadelphia police officer. As soon as he was alone, he raced down the highway in pursuit of the three civil rights workers. He caught the men just inside county limits and loaded them into his car. Two other cars pulled up filled with Klansmen who had been alerted by Price of the capture of the CORE workers, and the three cars drove down an unmarked dirt road called Rock Cut Road. Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney were shot to death and their bodies buried in an earthen dam a few miles from the Mt. Zion Church.

The next day, the FBI began an investigation into the disappearance of the civil rights workers. On June 23, the case drew national headlines, and federal agents found the workers' burned station wagon. Under pressure from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, the FBI escalated the investigation, which eventually involved more than 200 FBI agents and scores of federal troops who combed the woods and swamps looking for the bodies. The incident provided the final impetus needed for the 1964 Civil Rights Act to pass Congress on July 2, and eight days later FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover came to Mississippi to open a new Bureau office. Eventually, Delmar Dennis, a Klansman and one of the participants in the murders, was paid $30,000 and offered immunity from prosecution in exchange for information. On August 4, the remains of the three young men were found. The culprits were identified, but the state of Mississippi made no arrests.

Finally, on December 4, nineteen men, including Deputy Price, were indicted by the U.S. Justice Department for violating the civil rights of Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney (charging the suspects with civil rights violations was the only way to give the federal government jurisdiction in the case). After nearly three years of legal wrangling, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ultimately defended the indictments, the men went on trial in Jackson, Mississippi. The trial was presided over by an ardent segregationist, U.S. District Judge William Cox, but under pressure from federal authorities and fearing impeachment, he took the case seriously. On October 27, 1967, an all-white jury found seven of the men guilty, including Price and KKK Imperial Wizard Bowers. Nine were acquitted and the jury deadlocked on three others. The mixed verdict was hailed as a major civil rights victory, as no one in Mississippi had ever before been convicted for actions taken against a civil rights worker.

In December, Judge Cox sentenced the men to prison terms ranging from three to 10 years. After sentencing, he said, "They killed one nigger, one Jew, and a white man. I gave them what I thought they deserved." None of the convicted men served more than six years behind bars.

On the forty-first anniversary of the three murders, Edgar Ray Killen, was found guilty of three counts of manslaughter on June 21, 2005. Eighty-year-old Killen, known as an outspoken white supremacist and part-time Baptist minister, was sentenced to 60 years in prison.

Jun 21, 1964:
The KKK kills three civil rights activists

Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney are killed by a Ku Klux Klan lynch mob near Meridian, Mississippi. The three young civil rights workers were working to register black voters in Mississippi, thus inspiring the ire of the local Klan. The deaths of Schwerner and Goodman, white Northerners and members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), caused a national outrage.

When the desegregation movement encountered resistance in the early 1960s, CORE set up an interracial team to ride buses into the Deep South to help protest. These so-called Freedom Riders were viciously attacked in May 1961 when the first two buses arrived in Alabama. One bus was firebombed; the other boarded by KKK members who beat the activists inside. The Alabama police provided no protection.

Still, the Freedom Riders were not dissuaded and they continued to come into Alabama and Mississippi. Michael Schwerner was a particularly dedicated activist who lived in Mississippi while he assisted blacks to vote. Sam Bowers, the local Klan's Imperial Wizard, decided that Schwerner was a bad influence, and had to be killed.

When Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney, a young black man, were coming back from a trip to Philadelphia, Mississippi, deputy sheriff Cecil Price, who was also a Klan member, pulled them over for speeding. He then held them in custody while other KKK members prepared for their murder. Eventually released, the three activists were later chased down in their car and cornered in a secluded spot in the woods where they were shot and then buried in graves that had been prepared in advance.

When news of their disappearance got out, the FBI converged on Mississippi to investigate. With the help of an informant, agents learned about the Klan's involvement and found the bodies. Since Mississippi refused to prosecute the assailants in state court, the federal government charged 18 men with conspiracy to violate the civil rights of Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney.

Bowers, Price, and five other men were convicted; eight were acquitted; and the all-white jury deadlocked on the other three defendants. On the forty-first anniversary of the three murders, June 21, 2005, Edgar Ray Killen was found guilty of three counts of manslaughter. The 80-year-old Killen, known as an outspoken white supremacist and part-time Baptist minister, was sentenced to 60 years in prison.

Jun 21, 1942:
Allies surrender at Tobruk, Libya

On this day in 1942, General Erwin Rommel turns his assault on the British-Allied garrison at Tobruk, Libya, into victory, as his panzer division occupies the North African port.

Britain had established control of Tobruk after routing the Italians in 1940. But the Germans attempted to win it back by reinforcing Italian troops with the Afrika Korps of Erwin Rommel, who continually charged the British Eighth Army in battles around Tobruk, finally forcing the Brits to retreat into Egypt. All that was left to take back the port was the garrison now manned by the South African Division, which also included the Eleventh Indian Brigade. With the use of artillery, dive-bombers, and his panzer forces, Rommel pushed past the Allies. Unable to resist any longer, South African General Henrik Klopper ordered his officers to surrender early on the morning of the 21st. Rommel took more than 30,000 prisoners, 2,000 vehicles, 2,000 tons of fuel, and 5,000 tons of rations. Adolf Hitler awarded Rommel the field marshal's baton as reward for his victory. "I am going on to Suez," was Rommel's promise.

Jun 21, 1965:
Mr. Tambourine Man is released, and the folk-rock revolution is on

Released on this day in 1965, the Byrds' debut album, Mr. Tambourine Man, marked the beginning of the folk-rock revolution. In just a few months, the Byrds had become a household name, with a #1 single and a smash-hit album that married the ringing guitars and backbeat of the British Invasion with the harmonies and lyrical depth of folk to create an entirely new sound.

Perhaps someone else could have listened to the bright guitar lines of the Beatles' "Ticket To Ride" and to Bob Dylan's original "Mr. Tambourine Man" and had the idea of somehow combining the two, but neither of those recordings existed when the Byrds' Roger McGuinn devised his group's new sound. Newly signed to Columbia Records, the Byrds had access to an early demo version of "Mr. Tambourine Man" even before their label-mate Bob Dylan had had a chance to record it for his own upcoming album. On January 20, 1965, they entered the studio to record what would become the title track of their debut album and, incidentally, the only Bob Dylan song ever to reach #1 on the U.S. pop charts. Aiming consciously for a vocal style in between Dylan's and Lennon's, McGuinn sang lead, with Gene Clark and David Crosby providing the complex harmony that would, along with McGuinn's jangly electric 12-string Rickenbacker guitar, form the basis of the Byrds' trademark sound.

That sound, which would influence countless groups from Big Star to the Bangles in decades to come, had an immediate and profound impact on the Byrds' contemporaries, and even on the artists who'd inspired it in the first place. "Wow, man, you can even dance to that!" was Bob Dylan's reaction to hearing what the Byrds' had done with "Mr. Tambourine Man." Just days before the hugely influential album of the same name was released to the public on June 21, 1965, Dylan himself would be in a New York recording studio with an electric guitar in his hands, putting the finishing touches on "Like A Rolling Stone" and setting the stage for his controversial "Dylan goes electric" performance at the Newport Folk Festival just one month later.

Jun 21, 1956:
Arthur Miller refuses to name communists

Playwright Arthur Miller defies the House Committee on Un-American Activities and refuses to name suspected communists.

Miller's defiance of McCarthyism won him a conviction for contempt of court, which was later reversed by the Supreme Court. His passport had already been denied when he tried to go to Brussels to attend the premiere of his play The Crucible, about the Salem witch trials.

Miller was born in 1915 to a well-off German-Jewish family with a prosperous clothing store. However, the store went bankrupt after the stock market crash in 1929, and the family moved to Brooklyn. Miller finished high school at 16 and decided to become a writer after reading Dostoyevsky's The Brothers Karamazov.

Miller worked for two years in an automobile-parts warehouse before he attended the University of Michigan, where he studied journalism and playwriting. His student plays, largely studies of Jewish families, won awards. His first literary success was a novel called Focus (1945), about anti-Semitism. His first hit Broadway play, All My Sons, was produced in 1947. In 1949, Death of a Salesman was produced and won a Pulitzer Prize.

In 1956, Miller divorced his first wife and married glamorous movie star Marilyn Monroe. The couple remained married until 1961, the same year she starred in the movie he wrote for her, The Misfits. In 1962, he married his third wife, photographer Ingeborg Morath, and continued to write hit plays.

Miller died on February 10, 2005 at age 89 of congestive heart failure
22 June Events

217 BC – Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom.
168 BC – Battle of Pydna: Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeat Macedonian King Perseus who surrenders after the battle, ending the Third Macedonian War.
1527 – Fatahillah chased away Portugal from Sunda Kelapa harbour, and peoples celebrated it as birthday of Jakarta, Indonesia.
1593 – Battle of Sisak: Allied Christian troops defeat the Turks.
1622 – Portuguese forces repel a Dutch invasion at the Battle of Macau during the Dutch–Portuguese War.
1633 – The Holy Office in Rome forces Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe in the form he presented it in, after heated controversy.
1774 – The British pass the Quebec Act, setting out rules of governance for the colony of Quebec in British North America.
1783 – A poisonous cloud caused by the eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland reaches Le Havre in France.
1807 – In the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair, the British warship HMS Leopard attacks and boards the American frigate USS Chesapeake.
1813 – War of 1812: After learning of American plans for a surprise attack on Beaver Dams in Ontario, Laura Secord sets out on a 30 kilometer journey on foot to warn Lieutenant James FitzGibbon.
1825 – The British Parliament abolishes feudalism and the seigneurial system in British North America.
1839 – Cherokee leaders Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot are assassinated for signing the Treaty of New Echota, which had resulted in the Trail of Tears.
1870 – US Congress created the United States Department of Justice
1893 – The Royal Navy battleship HMS Camperdown accidentally rams the British Mediterranean Fleet flagship HMS Victoria which sinks taking 358 crew with her, including the fleet's commander, Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon.
1897 – British colonial officers Charles Walter Rand and Lt. Charles Egerton Ayerst are assassinated in Pune, Maharashtra, India by the Chapekar brothers and Mahadeo Vinayak Ranade, who are later caught and hanged.
1898 – Spanish–American War: United States Marines land in Cuba.
1906 – The flag of Sweden is adopted.
1907 – The London Underground's Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway opens.
1911 – George V and Mary of Teck are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1918 – The Hammond Circus Train Wreck kills 86 and injures 127 near Hammond, Indiana.
1922 – Herrin massacre: 19 strikebreakers and 2 union miners are killed in Herrin, Illinois.
1940 – France is forced to sign the Second Compiègne armistice with Germany.
1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.
1941 – The June Uprising in Lithuania begins.
1942 – Erwin Rommel is promoted to Field Marshal after the capture of Tobruk.
1944 – Opening day of the Soviet Union's Operation Bagration against the Army Group Centre.
1944 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill.
1945 – The Battle of Okinawa comes to an end.
1954 – In Christchurch (New Zealand) Pauline Parker and Juliet Hulme murder Pauline's mother because they think she is in the way of their close friendship (movie Heavenly Creatures by Peter Jackson in 1994). See Parker–Hulme murder case.
1957 – The Soviet Union launches an R-12 missile for the first time (in the Kapustin Yar).
1962 – An Air France Boeing 707 jet crashes in bad weather in Guadeloupe, West Indies, killing 113.
1969 – The Cuyahoga River catches fire, triggering a crack-down on pollution in the river.
1978 – Charon, a satellite of the dwarf planet Pluto, is discovered by American astronomer James W. Christy.
1984 – Virgin Atlantic Airways launches with its first flight from London Heathrow Airport.
1986 The controversial Hand of God goal by Diego Maradona in the quarter-finals of the 1986 FIFA World Cup match between Argentina and England. This was later followed by the Goal of the Century also by Maradona. Argentina would win 2-1 and go on to win the world cup.
1990 – Checkpoint Charlie is dismantled in Berlin.
2002 – An earthquake measuring 6.5 Mw strikes a region of northwestern Iran killing at least 261 people and injuring 1,300 others and eventually causing widespread public anger due to the slow official response.
2009 – Eastman Kodak Company announces that it will discontinue sales of the Kodachrome Color Film, concluding its 74-year run as a photography icon.
2012 – Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo is removed from office by impeachment and succeeded by Federico Franco.

Jun 22, 1950:
Bernstein, Copland, Seeger and others are named as Communists

The Red Scare of the 1940s and 1950s famously ended the careers of numerous film-industry professionals and forced others to avoid blacklisting by repudiating their political beliefs and "naming names" of suspected Communist sympathizers to the House Committee on Un-Activities (HUAC). But Hollywood actors, directors and screenwriters were not the only victims of the Cold War anti-Communist purges in the entertainment industry. Prominent figures in the music industry were also targeted, including Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Lena Horne, Pete Seeger and Artie Shaw, all of whom were named publicly as suspected Communist sympathizers on this day in 1950, in the infamous publication Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television.

Red Channels was a tract issued by the right-wing journal Counterattack, the self-described "Newsletter of Facts to Combat Communism." By 1950, Joseph McCarthy and the HUAC had already been at work for several years, and figures like singer Paul Robeson and the so-called Hollywood Ten had already been blacklisted, but Red Channels sought to go further, exposing what it called a widespread Communist effort to achieve "domination of American broadcasting and telecasting, preparatory to the day when…[the] Party will assume control of this nation as the result of a final upheaval and civil war." Some even believe that the men responsible for Red Channels—including several former members of the FBI—were given illegal access to the confidential files of HUAC in preparing their report, which exposed 151 names in the entertainment industry to public scrutiny and the threat of blacklisting

Joining famous names like Orson Welles, Lillian Hellman, Arthur Miller and Dorothy Parker on the Red Channels list were the aforementioned Bernstein, Copland, Horne, Seeger and Shaw and numerous other musical figures, including the legendary harmonica player Larry Adler, the folksinger Burl Ives, former Library of Congress folklorist Alan Lomax and The New York Times music critic Olin Downes. The evidence of Communist leanings offered in Red Channels included Lena Horne’s appearance on the letterhead of a South African famine relief program, Aaron Copland’s appearance on a panel at a 1949 Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace and Leonard Bernstein’s affiliation with the Committee to Re-Elect Benjamin J. Davis, a black, socialist New York City councilman.

In the end, Red Channels caused some of those named to be blacklisted—Pete Seeger, most famously—to fight publicly to prove their "loyalty" to the United States and still others to repudiate their political pasts and provide the HUAC with names of other suspected prominent leftists.

Jun 22, 1962:
Mysterious crash in Guadeloupe

On this day in 1962, an Air France Boeing 707 crashes on the island of Guadeloupe, killing all 113 passengers and crew members aboard. This crash was only one of five major accidents involving Boeing 707s during the year. Altogether, the five crashes killed 457 people.

The Boeing 707 was built as a modification of the KC-135 military tanker and bomber. The design was altered so that it could carry passengers and it proved to be very popular with the exploding commercial-aviation industry. Although it burned more fuel, the 707 was faster than other commercial jets of the time.

Part of the French West Indies, Guadeloupe is a small island in the Caribbean. Its airport is located in a valley ringed by mountains. Pilots generally dislike the steep descent required for landing. On June 22, the Air France flight failed to descend correctly and crashed directly into a peak call Dos D'Ane, or the Donkey's Back. The plane exploded in a fireball; there were no survivors.

The flight occurred before the advent of the black box flight recorder and no reason for the crash was ever found.

It was the third deadly crash of a Boeing 707 in a month. On May 22, 45 people died when a plane went down in Missouri and on June 3, another Air France 707 crashed in Paris killing 130 people. No evidence was ever found that connected the accidents.

Jun 22, 1937:
Louis becomes champ

In Chicago's Comiskey Park, Joe Louis wins the world heavyweight boxing title when he defeats American Jim Braddock in an eighth-round knockout. Louis was the first African American heavyweight champ since Jack Johnson, who lost the title in 1915. During his subsequent reign, the longest in the history of the heavyweight division, Louis successfully defended his title 25 times, scoring 21 knockouts.

Joe Louis, born in 1914, was the seventh son of a sharecropping family that worked in the cotton fields of Lexington, Alabama. His family moved to Chicago when he was 10, and two years later Louis dropped out of school to work in a Ford factory. He took up boxing at the Brewster East Side Gymnasium and at age 16 entered his first amateur tournament. He proved an outstanding amateur, winning the U.S. Amateur Athletic Union light heavyweight crown in 1934. On July 4, 1934, he defeated Jack Kracken in his professional debut. Louis went on to win his first 27 professional fights, beating the likes of former heavyweight champions Primo Carnera and Max Baer, both by knockouts.

Remembering the experience of Jack Johnson, who fled the United States in 1912 to escape persecution stemming from his marriage to a white woman, Louis' black managers instructed their protege to keep a tight lip, never be photographed with a white woman, and never smile after knocking down a white man. On June 19, 1936, Louis met Max Schmeling, a former heavyweight champ from Germany, at Yankee Stadium. Schmeling handed Louis his first defeat, knocking him out in the 12th round. Many white Americans celebrated the victory of Schmeling, a dutiful Nazi at the time, over the previously invincible Louis.

Joe Louis, however, did not stay down for long, and on June 22, 1937, he met champ Jim Braddock in Comiskey Park for a title fight. Louis was dropped early in the bout, but he rose from the canvas to knock out Braddock in the eighth round. After easily defeating two challengers, Louis met Schmeling for a dramatic rematch at Yankee Stadium on June 22, 1938--exactly one year after he won the heavyweight title. By the summer of 1938, Adolf Hitler was menacing Europe, and America found itself changing loyalties to root for Louis over Schmeling, who was condemned as a symbol of Nazi oppression. It took Louis two minutes and four seconds to defeat the German. Louis, already a great hero of African Americans everywhere, was hailed as a hero for all Americans.

Joe Louis went undefeated in his nearly 12-year heavyweight reign, defeating a total of 25 challengers. During World War II, he was inducted into the U.S. Army, and he traveled extensively, staging matches, giving boxing exhibitions, and refereeing bouts. After the war, he defended his title a few more times and in March 1947 announced his retirement. In September 1950, he returned to boxing, but lost to his successor as champ, Ezzard Charles, in a 15-round decision. He won eight more fights during the next year but in October 1951 was knocked out in the eighth round by the up-and-coming Rocky Marciano. He retired permanently after this comeback attempt. In his retirement, Joe Louis suffered from tax problems and financial difficulties. He later worked as a host at a Las Vegas casino. He died in 1981.

Jun 22, 1876:
General Santa Anna dies in Mexico City

Embittered and impoverished, the once mighty Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna dies in Mexico City.

Born in 1792 at Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico, Santa Anna was the son of middle-class parents. As a teen, he won a commission in the Spanish army and might have been expected to live out an unspectacular career as a middle-level army officer. However, the young Santa Anna quickly distinguished himself as a capable fighter and leader, and after 1821, he gained national prominence in the successful Mexican war for independence from Spain. In 1833, he won election to the presidency of the independent republic of Mexico by an overwhelming popular majority. His dedication to the ideal of a democratic role proved weak, though, and he proclaimed himself dictator in 1835.

Santa Anna's assumption of dictatorial power over Mexico brought him into direct conflict with a growing movement for independence in the Mexican state of Texas. During the 1820s and 1830s, large numbers of Euro-Americans had settled in the area of Texas, and many of them remained more loyal to the United States than to their distant rulers in Mexico City. Some viewed Santa Anna's overthrow of the Mexican Republic as an opportunity to break away and form an independent Republic of Texas that might one day become an American state.

Determined to crush the Texas rebels, Santa Anna took command of the Mexican army that invaded Texas in 1836. His forces successfully defeated the Texas rebels at the Alamo, and he personally ordered the execution of 400 Texan prisoners after the Battle of Goliad. However, these two victories planted the seeds for Santa Anna's defeat. "Remember the Alamo" and "Remember Goliad" became the rallying cries for a reinvigorated Texan army. Lulled into overconfidence by his initial easy victories, Santa Anna was taken by surprise at San Jacinto, and his army was annihilated on April 21, 1836. The captured Santa Anna, fearing execution, willingly signed an order calling for all Mexican troops to withdraw. Texas became an independent republic.

Deposed during his captivity with the Texan rebels, Santa Anna returned to Mexico a powerless man. During the next two decades, however, the highly unstable political situation in Mexico provided him with several opportunities to regain-and again lose-his dictatorial power. All told, he became the head of the Mexican government 11 times. Overthrown for the last time in 1855, he spent the remaining two decades of his life scheming with elements in Mexico, the United States, and France to stage a comeback.

Although he was clearly a brilliant political opportunist, Santa Anna was ultimately loyal only to himself and he had an insatiable lust for power. While Santa Anna played an important role in achieving Mexican independence, his subsequent governments were also at least partially responsible for the loss of the Southwest to the United States. He died in poverty and squalor in Mexico City at the age of 82, no doubt still dreaming of a return to power.

Jun 22, 1945:
Battle of Okinawa ends

During World War II, the U.S. 10th Army overcomes the last major pockets of Japanese resistance on Okinawa Island, ending one of the bloodiest battles of World War II. The same day, Japanese Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, the commander of Okinawa's defense, committed suicide with a number of Japanese officers and troops rather than surrender.

On April 1, 1945, the 10th Army, under Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, launched the invasion of Okinawa, a strategic Pacific island located midway between Japan and Formosa. Possession of Okinawa would give the United States a base large enough for an invasion of the Japanese home islands. There were more than 100,000 Japanese defenders on the island, but most were deeply entrenched in the island's densely forested interior. By the evening of April 1, 60,000 U.S. troops had come safely ashore. However, on April 4, Japanese land resistance stiffened, and at sea kamikaze pilots escalated their deadly suicide attacks on U.S. vessels.

During the next month, the battle raged on land and sea, with the Japanese troops and fliers making the Americans pay dearly for every strategic area of land and water won. On June 18, with U.S. victory imminent, General Buckner, the hero of Iwo Jima, was killed by Japanese artillery. Three days later, his 10th Army reached the southern coast of the island, and on June 22 Japanese resistance effectively came to an end.

The Japanese lost 120,000 troops in the defense of Okinawa, while the Americans suffered 12,500 dead and 35,000 wounded. Of the 36 Allied ships lost, most were destroyed by the 2,000 or so Japanese pilots who gave up their lives in kamikaze missions. With the capture of Okinawa, the Allies prepared for the invasion of Japan, a military operation predicted to be far bloodier than the 1944 Allied invasion of Western Europe. The plan called for invading the southern island of Kyushu in November 1945, and the main Japanese island of Honshu in March 1946. In July, however, the United States successfully tested an atomic bomb and after dropping two of these devastating weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August, Japan surrendered.

Jun 22, 1944:
FDR signs G.I. Bill

On this day in 1944, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the G.I. Bill, an unprecedented act of legislation designed to compensate returning members of the armed services--known as G.I.s--for their efforts in World War II.

As the last of its sweeping New Deal reforms, Roosevelt's administration created the G.I. Bill--officially the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944--hoping to avoid a relapse into the Great Depression after the war ended. FDR particularly wanted to prevent a repeat of the Bonus March of 1932, when 20,000 unemployed veterans and their families flocked in protest to Washington. The American Legion, a veteran's organization, successfully fought for many of the provisions included in the bill, which gave returning servicemen access to unemployment compensation, low-interest home and business loans, and--most importantly--funding for education.

By giving veterans money for tuition, living expenses, books, supplies and equipment, the G.I. Bill effectively transformed higher education in America. Before the war, college had been an option for only 10-15 percent of young Americans, and university campuses had become known as a haven for the most privileged classes. By 1947, in contrast, vets made up half of the nation's college enrollment; three years later, nearly 500,000 Americans graduated from college, compared with 160,000 in 1939.

As educational institutions opened their doors to this diverse new group of students, overcrowded classrooms and residences prompted widespread improvement and expansion of university facilities and teaching staffs. An array of new vocational courses were developed across the country, including advanced training in education, agriculture, commerce, mining and fishing--skills that had previously been taught only informally.

The G.I. Bill became one of the major forces that drove an economic expansion in America that lasted 30 years after World War II. Only 20 percent of the money set aside for unemployment compensation under the bill was given out, as most veterans found jobs or pursued higher education. Low interest home loans enabled millions of American families to move out of urban centers and buy or build homes outside the city, changing the face of the suburbs. Over 50 years, the impact of the G.I. Bill was enormous, with 20 million veterans and dependents using the education benefits and 14 million home loans guaranteed, for a total federal investment of $67 billion. Among the millions of Americans who have taken advantage of the bill are former Presidents George H.W. Bush and Gerald Ford, former Vice President Al Gore and entertainers Johnny Cash, Ed McMahon, Paul Newman and Clint Eastwood.
22 June Births

662 – Rui Zong, Chinese emperor of the Tang Dynasty (d. 716)
916 – Sayf al-Dawla, Syrian Emir of Aleppo (d. 967)
1680 – Ebenezer Erskine, Scottish minister (d. 1754)
1684 – Francesco Manfredini, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1762)
1704 – John Taylor, English scholar (d. 1766)
1713 – Lord John Sackville, English cricketer and politician (d. 1765)
1738 – Jacques Delille, French poet (d. 1813)
1757 – George Vancouver, English navy officer and explorer (d. 1798)
1763 – Étienne Méhul, French composer (d. 1817)
1767 – Wilhelm von Humboldt, German philosopher and diplomat (d. 1835)
1805 – Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian journalist and politician (d. 1872)
1837 – Paul Morphy, American chess player (d. 1884)
1837 – Ernst Ziller, German-Greek architect, designed the Presidential Mansion (d. 1923)
1845 – Tom Dula, American soldier (d. 1868)
1845 – Richard Seddon, English-New Zealand politician, 15th Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1906)
1856 – H. Rider Haggard, English author (d. 1925)
1861 – Maximilian von Spee, Danish-German admiral (d. 1914)
1864 – Hermann Minkowski, German mathematician (d. 1909)
1871 – William McDougall, English psychologist and polymath (d. 1938)
1874 – Viggo Jensen, Danish weightlifter, target shooter, and gymnast (d. 1930)
1874 – Walter Friedrich Otto, German philologist (d. 1958)
1879 – Thibaudeau Rinfret, Canadian jurist, 9th Chief Justice of Canada (d. 1962)
1880 – Johannes Drost, Dutch swimmer (d. 1954)
1884 – James Rector, American sprinter (d. 1949)
1885 – Milan Vidmar, Slovenian engineer and chess player (d. 1962)
1887 – Julian Huxley, English biologist (d. 1975)
1888 – Harold Hitz Burton, American lawyer and politician, 45th Mayor of Cleveland (d. 1964)
1889 – Ossian Skiöld, Swedish hammer thrower (d. 1961)
1890 – Aleksander Warma, Estonian commander and politician (d. 1970)
1892 – Robert Ritter von Greim, German general (d. 1945)
1896 – Leonard W. Murray, Canadian admiral (d. 1971)
1897 – Edmund A. Chester, American journalist and broadcaster (d. 1973)
1897 – Norbert Elias, German sociologist (d. 1990)
1898 – Erich Maria Remarque, German author (d. 1970)
1899 – Michał Kalecki, Polish economist (d. 1970)
1899 – Artur Kukk, Estonian wrestler (d. 1958)
1901 – Elias Katz, Finnish runner (d. 1947)
1902 – Marguerite De La Motte, American actress (d. 1950)
1903 – John Dillinger, American bank robber (d. 1934)
1903 – Carl Hubbell, American baseball player (d. 1988)
1906 – William Kneale, English logician (d. 1990)
1906 – Anne Morrow Lindbergh, American author (d. 2001)
1906 – Billy Wilder, Austrian-American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2002)
1909 – Buddy Adler, American film producer (d. 1960)
1909 – Katherine Dunham, American dancer and choreographer (d. 2006)
1909 – Fuller Kimbrell, American politician (d. 2013)
1909 – Mike Todd, American film and theater producer (d. 1958)
1910 – John Hunt, Baron Hunt, Indian-English army officer and mountaineer (d. 1998)
1910 – Peter Pears, English tenor (d. 1986)
1910 – Konrad Zuse, German computer scientist and engineer, invented the Z3 computer (d. 1995)
1912 – Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1983)
1913 – Sándor Weöres, Hungarian poet (d. 1989)
1915 – Cornelius Warmerdam, American pole vaulter (d. 2001)
1916 – Johnny Jacobs, American television announcer (d. 1982)
1919 – Gower Champion, American dancer and choreographer (d. 1980)
1920 – Paul Frees, American actor and singer (d. 1986)
1920 – Edmund Pellegrino, American ethicist and academic (d. 2013)
1920 – Jovito Salonga, Filipino lawyer and politician
1921 – Joseph Papp, American director and producer (d. 1991)
1921 – Barbara Vucanovich, American politician (d. 2013)
1922 – Bill Blass, American fashion designer, founded Bill Blass Limited (d. 2002)
1922 – Mona Lisa, Filipino actress
1923 – José Giovanni, French-Swiss director and screenwriter (d. 2004)
1924 – Christopher Booth, British clinician (d. 2012)
1924 – Larkin Kerwin, Canadian physicist (d. 2004)
1924 – Géza Vermes, Hungarian-English theologian and scholar (d. 2013)
1927 – D.A. Low, British historian
1927 – Ann Petersen, Belgian actress (d. 2003)
1928 – Ralph Waite, American actor and director (d. 2014)
1929 – Bruce Kent, British political activist
1930 – Yury Artyukhin, Russian colonel, engineer, and astronaut (d. 1998)
1930 – Jack Bailey, English cricket administrator
1930 – Walter Bonatti, Italian mountaineer (d. 2011)
1932 – Yevgeny Kychanov, Russian orientalist (d. 2013)
1932 – Amrish Puri, Indian actor (d. 2005)
1932 – June Salter, Australian actress (d. 2001)
1932 – Prunella Scales, English actress
1932 – John Wakeham, British politician
1933 – Dianne Feinstein, American politician, 38th Mayor of San Francisco
1933 – Jacques Martin, French television host and producer (d. 2007)
1933 – Libor Pešek, Czech conductor
1934 – James Bjorken, American physicist
1936 – Kris Kristofferson, American singer-songwriter, musician, and actor (The Highwaymen)
1936 – Hermeto Pascoal, Brazilian accordion player and composer
1937 – Chris Blackwell, English record producer
1937 – Bernie McGann, Australian saxophonist and composer (d. 2013)
1939 – Hugh Annesley, British police officer
1939 – Don Matthews, American-Canadian football player and coach
1940 – Hubert Chesshyre, British Clarenceux King of Arms
1940 – Abbas Kiarostami, Iranian director, producer, and screenwriter
1940 – Esther Rantzen, English journalist
1941 – Ed Bradley, American journalist (d. 2006)
1941 – Michael Lerner, American actor
1941 – Terttu Savola, Finnish politician
1942 – Murphy Dunne, American actor and musician
1943 – Judith Barker, English actress
1943 – Brit Hume, American journalist
1944 – Peter Asher, English singer, guitarist, and producer (Peter & Gordon)
1944 – Klaus Maria Brandauer, Austrian actor and director
1945 – Rainer Brüderle, German politician
1946 – Jean-François Bertrand, Canadian politician
1946 – Linda Bond, Canadian Salvation Army general
1946 – Sheila Hollins, British psychiatrist
1946 – Eliades Ochoa, Cuban singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Cuarteto Patria)
1946 – Stephen Waley-Cohen, British theatre owner and producer
1947 – Octavia E. Butler, American author (d. 2006)
1947 – Howard Kaylan, American singer-songwriter (The Turtles, The Mothers of Invention, and Flo & Eddie)
1947 – David Lander, American actor
1947 – Pete Maravich, American basketball player (d. 1988)
1947 – Jerry Rawlings, Ghanaian politician, President of Ghana
1947 – Leelo Tungal, Estonian poet and children's writer
1948 – James Charteris, Scottish peer and businessman
1948 – Steve Eastin, American actor
1948 – Todd Rundgren, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Nazz, Utopia, and The New Cars)
1949 – Larry Junstrom, American bass player (38 Special and Lynyrd Skynyrd)
1949 – Brian Leveson, British judge
1949 – Alan Osmond, American singer (The Osmonds)
1949 – Meryl Streep, American actress and singer
1949 – Luís Filipe Vieira, Portuguese businessman
1949 – Lindsay Wagner, American actress
1949 – Elizabeth Warren, American academic and politician
1950 – Adrian Năstase, Romanian lawyer and politician, 59th Prime Minister of Romania
1950 – Zenonas Petrauskas, Lithuanian lawyer and politician (d. 2009)
1951 – Humphrey Ocean, British contemporary painter
1952 – Graham Greene, Canadian actor
1952 – Alastair Stewart, English television newsreader and presenter
1953 – Wim Eijk, Dutch cardinal
1953 – Mauro Francaviglia, Italian mathematician (d. 2013)
1953 – Cyndi Lauper, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress (Blue Angel)
1953 – Bruce McAvaney, Australian sportscaster
1953 – Mai Lin, Asian-American pornographic actress
1954 – Freddie Prinze, American comedian and actor (d. 1977)
1955 – Green Gartside, Welsh singer-songwriter and guitarist (Scritti Politti)
1955 – Olevi Kull, Estonian ecologist (d. 2007)
1956 – Alfons De Wolf, Belgian cyclist
1956 – Ron Haslam, English motorcycle racer
1956 – Shah Mehmood Qureshi, Pakistani politician, 25th Minister of Foreign Affairs for Pakistan
1956 – Tim Russ, American actor, director, and screenwriter
1956 – Manuel Saval, Mexican actor (d. 2009)
1956 – Markus Schatte, German footballer, manager, and coach
1956 – Derek Forbes, Scottish bassist and sometime guitarist (Simple Minds)
1957 – Kevin Bond, English footballer and manager
1957 – Danny Baker, English journalist and screenwriter
1957 – Garry Gary Beers, Australian bass player, songwriter, and producer (INXS and Absent Friends)
1958 – Bruce Campbell, American actor, director, and producer
1958 – Jennifer Finney Boylan, American transgender author and academic
1959 – Wayne Federman, American comedian, actor, and author
1959 – Michael Kinane, Irish flat racing jockey
1959 – Mike O'Meara, American radio host
1959 – Nicola Sirkis, French singer-songwriter and guitarist (Indochine)
1959 – Ed Viesturs, American mountaineer
1960 – Erin Brockovich, American lawyer and environmentalist
1960 – Margrit Klinger, German middle-distance runner
1960 – Tracy Pollan, American actress
1961 – Stephen Batchelor, English field hockey player and coach
1961 – Arabella Pollen, English fashion designer, journalist and author
1961 – Jimmy Somerville, Scottish singer-songwriter (Bronski Beat and The Communards)
1962 – Stephen Chow, Hong Kong actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
1962 – Clyde Drexler, American basketball player and coach
1962 – Ain Evard, Estonian high jumper
1962 – Bobby Gillespie, Scottish singer-songwriter (Primal Scream, The Jesus and Mary Chain, and The Wake)
1962 – Gerald Hillringhaus, German footballer
1963 – Randy Couture, American mixed martial artist and actor
1963 – Hokutoumi Nobuyoshi, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 61st Yokozuna
1963 – John Tenta, Canadian-American wrestler (d. 2006)
1964 – Amy Brenneman, American actress, producer, and screenwriter
1964 – Dan Brown, American author
1964 – John Penrose, English politician
1965 – Uwe Boll, German director, producer, and screenwriter
1965 – Ľubomír Moravčík, Czech footballer and manager
1966 – Schoolly D, American rapper and actor
1966 – Michael Park, English race car driver (d. 2005)
1966 – Emmanuelle Seigner, French actress and singer
1967 – Mike Sussman, American television writer and producer
1968 – Darrell Armstrong, American basketball player and coach
1970 – Michel Elefteriades, Greek-Lebanese businessman
1970 – Steven Page, Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist (Barenaked Ladies)
1971 – Gary Connolly, English rugby football player
1971 – Kambri Crews, American author
1971 – Mary Lynn Rajskub, American actress
1971 – Kurt Warner, American football player
1972 – Stephen Mosley, English politician
1972 – David Rees, American cartoonist
1973 – Carson Daly, American television host
1974 – Vijay, Indian actor, singer, and producer
1974 – Donald Faison, American actor
1975 – Müslüm Can, Turkish footballer
1975 – Kenshin Kawakami, Japanese baseball player
1975 – Andreas Klöden, German cyclist
1975 – Urmas Reinsalu, Estonian politician, 28th Minister of Defence for Estonia
1975 – Laila Rouass, English actress
1976 – Gordon Moakes, English bass player (Bloc Party and Young Legionnaire)
1978 – Champ Bailey, American football player
1978 – Tim Driesen, Belgian actor, singer, and dancer
1978 – Jai Rodriguez, American actor, singer, and author
1978 – Dan Wheldon, English race car driver (d. 2011)
1979 – Joey Cheek, American speed skater
1979 – Xenofon Gittas, Greek footballer
1979 – Brad Hawpe, American baseball player
1979 – Leire Martínez, Basque singer-songwriter (La Oreja de Van Gogh)
1979 – Thomas Voeckler, French cyclist
1980 – Ilya Bryzgalov, Russian ice hockey player
1981 – Sione Lauaki, New Zealand rugby player
1981 – Aquivaldo Mosquera, Colombian footballer
1981 – Chris Urbanowicz, English guitarist (Editors)
1982 – Soraia Chaves, Portuguese model and actress
1982 – Ian Kinsler, American baseball player
1983 – Allar Raja, Estonian rower
1984 – Giorgos Apostolidis, Greek basketball player
1984 – Dustin Johnson, American golfer
1984 – Rubén Iván Martínez, Spanish footballer
1984 – Jerome Taylor, Jamaican cricketer
1984 – Janko Tipsarević, Serbian tennis player
1985 – Rosa Kato, Italian-Japanese model and actress
1985 – Scott MacIntyre, American singer-songwriter and pianist
1985 – Sofoklis Schortsanitis, Cameroonian-Greek basketball player
1986 – Ramin Ott, American-Samoan footballer
1987 – Joe Dempsie, English actor
1987 – Danny Green, American basketball player
1987 – Cory Gunz, American rapper
1987 – Lee Min Ho, South Korean actor and singer
1987 – Nikita Rukavytsya, Ukrainian-Australian footballer
1988 – Omri Casspi, Israeli basketball player
1988 – Portia Doubleday, American actress
1989 – Cédric Mongongu, Congolese footballer
1989 – Jung Yong-hwa, South Korean singer-songwriter and actor (CN Blue)
1990 – Quinton Coples, American football player
1991 – Giuseppe De Luca, Italian footballer
1993 – Caydee Denney, American figure skater
1993 – Ingmar Lazar, French pianist
1997 – Tami Grende, Indonesian tennis player

Jun 22, 1775:
Congress issues Continental currency

By the spring of 1775, colonial leaders, concerned by British martial law in Boston and increasing constraints on trade, had led their forces in battle against the crown. But, the American revolutionaries encountered a small problem on their way to the front: they lacked the funds necessary to wage a prolonged war.

Though hardly the colonies' first dalliance with paper notes--the Massachusetts Bay colony had issued its own bills in 1690--the large-scale distribution of the revolutionary currency was fairly new ground for America. Moreover, the bills, known at the time as "Continentals," notably lacked the then de rigueur rendering of the British king. Instead, some of the notes featured likenesses of Revolutionary soldiers and the inscription "The United Colonies." But, whatever their novelty, the Continentals proved to be a poor economic instrument: backed by nothing more than the promise of "future tax revenues" and prone to rampant inflation, the notes ultimately had little fiscal value. As George Washington noted at the time, "A wagonload of currency will hardly purchase a wagonload of provisions." Thus, the Continental failed and left the young nation saddled with a hefty war debt.

A deep economic depression followed the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Unstable currency and unstable debts caused a Continental Army veteran, Daniel Shays, to lead a rebellion in western Massachusetts during the winter of 1787. Fear of economic chaos played a significant role in the decision to abandon the Articles of Confederation for the more powerful, centralized government created by the federal Constitution. During George Washington's presidency, Alexander Hamilton struggled to create financial institutions capable of stabilizing the new nation's economy.

Duly frustrated by the experience with Continental currency, America resisted the urge to again issue new paper notes until the dawn of the Civil War.

Jun 22, 1611:
Hudson set adrift by mutineers

After spending a winter trapped by ice in present-day Hudson Bay, the starving crew of the Discovery mutinies against its captain, English navigator Henry Hudson, and sets him, his teenage son, and seven supporters adrift in a small, open boat. Hudson and the eight others were never seen again.

Two years earlier, in 1609, Hudson sailed to the Americas to find a northwest passage to Asia after repeatedly failing in his efforts to find a northeast ocean passage. Exploring the North American coast, he entered the present-day Chesapeake, Delaware, and New York bays, and then became the first European to ascend what is now called the Hudson River. His voyage, which was financed by the Dutch, was the basis of Holland's later claims to the region.

His fourth expedition, financed by adventurers from England, set out from London on April 17, 1610. Sailing back across the Atlantic, Hudson resumed his efforts to find the northwest passage. Between Greenland and Labrador he entered the present-day Hudson Strait and by it reached Hudson Bay. After three months of exploration, the Discovery was caught too far from open sea when winter set in, and in November Hudson's men were forced to haul it ashore and set up a winter camp. Lacking food or supplies, the expedition greatly suffered in the extreme cold. Many of the crew held Hudson responsible for their misfortune, and on June 22, 1611, with the coming of summer, they mutinied against him. The Discovery later returned to England, and its crew was arrested for the mutiny. Although Henry Hudson was never seen again, his discoveries gave England its claim to the rich Hudson Bay region.

Jun 22, 1898:
Erich Maria Remarque born

On June 22, 1898, Erich Maria Remarque, the author of the great World War I novel All Quiet on the Western Front, is born in Osnabruck, Germany.

A student at the University of Munster, Remarque was drafted into the German army at the age of 18. He fought on the Western Front during World War I and was wounded no fewer than five times, the last time seriously. After the war, he worked various jobs—teacher, stonecutter, race-car driver, sports journalist—while working to complete the novel he had had in mind since the war. Published in Germany in 1929 as Im Westen Nichts Neues, it sold 1.2 million copies within a year; the English translation, All Quiet on the Western Front, published the same year, went on to similar success. It was subsequently translated into 12 languages, and made into a celebrated Hollywood film in 1930.

The smashing success of All Quiet on the Western Front was due in large part to its reflection of a widespread disillusionment with the war that took hold of many during the 1920s. Praised as a novel of unyielding realism, All Quiet on the Western Front described in stark detail the physical trauma of war. Remarque also articulated the numbing frustration and anger of the conscript soldier, sent into battle by government and military leaders for reasons of politics and power that he struggled to understand. In the words of his protagonist, Paul Baumer: I see how peoples are set against one another and in silence, unknowingly, foolishly, obediently, innocently slay one anotherI see that the keenest brains of the world invent weapons and words to make it yet more refined and enduring.

The celebrated American journalist H. L. Mencken called All Quiet on the Western Front "unquestionably the best story of the World War." Both the book and the 1930 film version were banned by the Nazis after their rise to power in Germany in 1933 as prejudicial to German national prestige. Remarque went on to write nine more novels, all dealing with the horror and futility of war and the struggle to understand its purpose; his last novel, The Night in Lisbon, was unsparing in its condemnation of World War II as Adolf Hitler's attempt to perpetrate the extermination of Jews and other nonpeople on behalf of the master race.

Though he became a naturalized American citizen and was during the 1930s a frequent participant in New York City nightlife and a companion for several years in Hollywood of the actress Marlene Dietrich, Remarque lived for most of his later life at Porto Ronco, on the shore of Lake Maggiore in Switzerland. He died at Locarno in 1970 with his wife, the actress Paulette Goddard, at his side.

Jun 22, 2008:
George Carlin dies

On this day in 2008, the influential comic writer, actor and stand-up comedian George Carlin dies of heart failure at the age of 71.

Born in New York City, Carlin dropped out of high school and joined the Air Force. While stationed in Shreveport, Louisiana, he got a job as a radio disc jockey; after his discharge, he worked as a radio announcer and disc jockey in Boston and Fort Worth, Texas. Carlin and his early radio colleague, Jack Burns, formed a moderately successful stand-up comedy duo, appearing in nightclubs and on The Tonight Show with Jack Paar. They soon parted ways, and Carlin made his first solo appearance on The Tonight Show in 1962. Three years later, he began a string of performances on The Merv Griffin Show and was later hired as a regular on Away We Go, 1967’s summer replacement for The Jackie Gleason Show. Carlin cemented his early career success with the release of his debut comedy album, the well-reviewed Take-Offs and Put-Downs, that same year.

During the late 1960s, Carlin had a recurring role on the sitcom That Girl, starring Marlo Thomas, and made numerous TV appearances on shows such as The Ed Sullivan Show and Johnny Carson’s Tonight Show. Seeking to make a leap into big-time stardom, the relatively clean-cut, conventional comic reinvented himself around 1970 as an eccentric, biting social critic and commentator. In his new incarnation, Carlin began appealing to a younger, hipper audience, particularly college students. He began dressing in a stereotypically “hippie” style, with a beard, long hair and jeans, and his new routines were punctuated by pointed jokes about religion and politics and frequent references to drugs.

Released in 1972, Carlin’s second album, FM/AM, won a Grammy Award for Best Comedy Recording. A routine from his third hit album, Class Clown (also 1972) grew into the comic’s now-famous profanity-laced routine “Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television.” When it was first broadcast on New York radio, a complaint led the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to ban the broadcast as “indecent.” The U.S. Supreme Court later upheld the order, which remains in effect today. The routine made Carlin a hero to his fans and got him in trouble with radio brass as well as with law enforcement; he was even arrested several times, once during an appearance in Milwaukee, for violating obscenity laws.

More popular than ever as a countercultural hero, Carlin was asked to be the first guest host of a new sketch comedy show, Saturday Night Live, in 1975. Two years later, he starred in the first of what would be 14 comedy specials on the cable television station HBO (the last one aired in March 2008). Carlin had a certain degree of success on the big screen as well, including a supporting role in Outrageous Fortune (1987), a memorable appearance in Bill & Ted’s Excellent Adventure (1989) and a fine supporting turn in the drama The Prince of Tides (1991). More recently, he played a Roman Catholic cardinal in Kevin Smith’s satirical comedy Dogma (1999).

Though a 1994 Fox sitcom, The George Carlin Show, lasted only one season, Carlin continued to perform his HBO specials and his live comedy gigs into the early 21st century. He also wrote best-selling books based on his comedy routines, including Brain Droppings (1997), Napalm & Silly Putty (2001) and When Will Jesus Bring the Pork Chops? (2004). According to his obituary in the New York Times, Carlin gave his last live comedy show in Las Vegas just weeks before his death.