of course it comes down to the age old question of chance vs intelligent design. One that will see no conclusive answer regardless of how ever long it is debated. The word "evolution" in itself implies something. Something consistent and persistent. It is not chance that things evolve nor is it chance that the future exists. The word change implies neither improvement nor degradation however the word evolve always suggests improvement regarding sustainability. Is it chance that evolution exists? Can you define the word chance and scientifically prove that randomness actually exists? Can you prove randomness as "real" using the scientific method? Or is it just humans egocentric way of accommodating that which it can not pre-determine? I believe the current thinking suggests that the Neanderthal evolved into Homo-Sapiens and it is suggested that Homo-Sapiens (HS) may yet evolve into something else again depending on how HS deal with evolutionary challenges to achieve sustainable success as a species. Especially now with the issue of climate change. Either we achieve a more environmentally sustainable position or we will become extinct as a race. ...and of course you are entitled to your opinion....constant change over eons but always towards sustainability like the arrow of time always in one direction. Is the direction of time considered chance? Also, Is their any evidence of devolution? Not that I am aware of...so I ask: why not if only chance was at play? Surely if only chance, we would observe sustainable devolution in nature? We have an arrow of time, always forward and like wise with evolution towards sustainability. There are a number of problematic issues with this approach IMO Mathematics is a Human mind game only, seeking to imitate the innate intelligence of that which we observe and what surrounds us. Chance is also a mathematical enigma of an egocentric mind. There is a question and answer riddle that can be used to demonstrate egocentricity and delusions of grandeur. Mirror mirror on the wall Q. Who or what is by far the greatest artist of them all? or, regarding your post, Q Who or what is the greatest mathematician of them all? When seeking an answer to the above we may start to realized that our claim to fame is merely due to plagiarism, mimicry, imitation and when you look at ourselves with the humility the answer inspires you start to realize a greater truth about who and what we are. Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image!