What are these in English?


Registered Member
I know what these are in the language I speak, but I can't find what they are in English.

1. Railways with narrow tracks that were built in the 19th century for bigger amounts of cargo, but because of small loads usually worked with financial loss.
2. Ship transport that is a regular movement of ships with passengers or ships with cargo between certain ports and under a certain schedule and only dealt with conveyance of passengers at first.
3. Ship transport, which cargo turnover has decreased over the years as the amount of cargo for the ship transport in number 2 has continuously grown.
4. Type of carriage that consists of not doing trans-shipment and transporting the cargo right to the destination.
5. Barges, on where cars or buses are brought over the seas, when the building of the bridges or tunnels for the smooth movement of the type of carriage in number 4 is too expensive.
6. A principle that means to get the needed details, raw material or end production for manufacturing from the part of the world, where the relation between the quality and price is the most beneficial or profitable.
7. The second branch of meteorology, while the first branch is atmospheric physics. Is it operational meteorology?
8. The type of country or state that a society will become when it industrializes. Not industrial state or country.
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What language do you speak?

And what are the terms for these things in that language?
Thread was moved here from B&E with Fraggle's OK.

In answer to OP's #6, we call that "out sourcing."

Comments on OP's 5:
we use a "ferry" for that, but rarely if ever is it a "barge". Barges normally* don't have a motor, but are pushed (or rarely pulled) by ship that does. Ferries always do.

Usually Ferries cross lakes or rivers but I have ridden one going 30 or so miles out into the ocean - to Martha's Vineyard.**

* Not rare, especially in Europe, to see a barge with one small car on it going down the Danube or Rhine, as the captain of the boat pushing it may need his car where they are going.

** 50 or so years ago the islands of NC's outer banks were connected by ferries not bridges. I was camping Easter holiday with girl friend on the un-inhabited most southern island, Oracoke, where the ferry came only once per day. I saw it near the dock when I was ~ half mile away on the day I had to leave - to get back to graduate school. I drove that last 0.5 mile at ~60mph on unpaved dirt road with my VW beetle's horn blowing, hoping it would come back to let me get on. Quite embarrassing as I got near the dock and saw it was still coming in.

I like ferries. With no car they are cheap tour of bays, etc. Once on one in the Puget Sound, it pulled up to a small island's dock, after blowing its horn while approaching and no one got off or on. Just before it left after a few minutes wait, on spur of the moment I got off. I had a bottle of water, matches, fish hooks and line, short rope (my "clothes line"), a rain poncho and a 6 inch knife in my back pack. I was there three days, "living off the land." I found a can to boil more pond water in, ate mainly clams, berries and the one grass I knew was good to eat, and almost one snake, but it got away. I had expected and tried for some crabs or fish, but caught none.
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