Your help with an experiment please.

July 20th 1969. The mark we made on the moon.

Its controversial, but if we really did land on the moon, then it is defiently the most important date. It was our next reach, and it was a big one. The average person doesn't realize the significance of reaching the peice of rock in no way connected the the earth. It landmarks end of the next step of exploration. I doubt there now is a next step.
From 1877 to 1887, Pasteur employed these fundamentals of microbiology in the battle against infectious diseases.

"I beseech you to take interest in these sacred domains so expressively called laboratories. Ask that there be more and that they be adorned for these are the temples of the future, wealth and well-being. It is here that humanity will grow, strengthen and improve. Here, humanity will learn to read progress and individual harmony in the works of nature, while humanity's own works are all too often those of barbarism, fanaticism and destruction." -- Louis Pasteur
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nicolaou said:

What is the most important date in human history since the beginning of the 19th century?

I suppose the most important day in that timespan was the first day of the 19nt century. Because without it, there could be no second day or a third and no today. :D
The day Sputnik 1 was launched. Dunno the date. It marked humankind's ascent into space, and showed us that we were then capable of getting off our dirt ball and into the vastness of space.

It started the international "Space Race" to the moon . . . which the US won. I think Sputnik 1 was also the first manmade object to get into space. Correct me if I'm wrong . . .
Now that's a question and a half ...

I never can remember the date, but I think the Zimmermann Telegram must have a pretty good claim to that distinction. Without it, America might well have continued to pursue its isolationist policies and leave the Europeans to fight among themselves, in which case the collapse of the Russian army would probably have been swiftly followed by the collapse of the French and British armies. Ans the 20th century would then have taken a VERY different course.

But then again, that is to ignore the whole of the 19th century. And there are a lot of very important, non-military events to be considered there. (The military ones are pretty boring: Britain goes to war ... wins; goes to war again ... wins; goes to war again ... wins; oh yes, and has her Canadian colony invaded so burns down the American capital, finally losing to the Americans in a battle somewhere in the South fought two weeks after the peace treaty was signed, so it doesn't really count 'cos wars aren't won and lost in extra time).

Difficult to single out any single one, though, isn't it?

So on reflection, I think I'll be controversial. Not the moonshot - that has actually been a big non-event so far as the course of history is concerned. It happened, a bit like Donald Campbell breakign the world water speed record. It caused a bit of a flap at the time but that is all.

No - there was a day in 1922 when Mallory and Irvine reached the summit of Everest, never to return. Now THAT was a momentous day ...

... only joking. I think I'll stick with the Zimmermann Telegram.
I would have to go with today because without today there is no tomorrow!
1936, Konrad Zuse comes up with the first freely programmable computer.

And post-it notes too! :)
My answer was today not tomorrow but none the less your point is well taken so i'ld like to change my answer from today to yesterday because if there were no yesterday then we wouldnt be answering this question today!
what about the day before yesterday, it keeps going on and on.