**Einstein's life works from continued**

......

11. The curved space-time
While working on GR, Einstein obtained a numerical value for the bending of a light beam due to the gravitational effect of the Sun. This value was twice the previous one. In 1919, it was experimentally confirmed, but the physical cause of the 0.877-arcsecond excess deflection remained unanswered. Einstein then came up with a very surprising, abstract, even heretical theory that the other half of the double curvature was caused by space (empty nothing).

**12. Cosmological constant 1923 **
At the time, it was commonly believed that everything in the cosmos was stationary and that the distance between stars was constant. Of course, this was Einstein's view as well. In fact, he believed more deeply than most in a static universe, since his Creator God could not have created anything other than a perfect, final universe. So he tried to form general relativity in this direction. He built into his equations a so-called cosmic constant to counteract the gravitational pull towards the center of the cosmos. He called it repulsive gravity. In a way, he provided the stability expected of the cosmos in his theory.

But in 1929, something unexpected happened. An American astronomer - Hubble - used a giant telescope to show that stars were moving away from one by one, meaning the universe was expanding. This effectively proved the hypothetical constant, but Einstein was stymied at this point. Hubble spent six months proving obvious to him before he came to believe it. After that, his confidence in the cosmic constant was apparently shaken, and he later withdrew it.

Historians of science blame him for this move. I don't think he should have withdrawn it either, for two reasons. He could have said that there was nothing fundamentally wrong with it, it just needed to be made a bit bigger. Or he could have said that there was another, as yet unknown, force at work. I myself am thinking of a third solution, dark energy. It is expanding - and at a variable rate - so it is probably also replenishing itself and manifesting itself as a force from the inside out.

After all, I am optimistic about the creation of a cosmological constant because it has started a thought process in astronomy. Although we are still at the very beginning of this process.

**13. Bose-Einstein condensation 1923 **
The Indian physicist Bose succeeded in deriving Planck's law of radiation for photons using a statistical method. Einstein generalized this to matter and all fermions with half spin. It was, however, obvious that the family of extremely behavioral, whole-spin particles should be called bosons after Bose.

**14. E-P-R paradox 1935**
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is one of the most famous thought experiments in quantum mechanics. Its original aim was to demonstrate the incompleteness of quantum physics theory and to reduce the role of the observer. "Colleague, can you see the moon in the sky? And if we don't observe it, is it really not there?" - Einstein argued.

The Bohr-led group of physicists had by then embraced non-locality and the key role of the idea of the observer in the control of micro-processes. Everyone was also familiar with the amazing phenomenon of entanglement. It was the phenomenon that two connected particles would hold hands even if they were infinitely far apart when they separated.

This also means hyper-speed of light or infinitely fast contact between bodies.

Einsteins thought in terms of an electron-pair experiment, but they did not see electrons as the birthplace of the indeterminacy relation, but as a material reality. "Matter is nothing but a particularly strong state of a field in space," Einstein argued. John Bell put the theoretical debate into a mathematical formula and later resolved the hard formula.

Aspect performed the ultimate experiment with atoms and proved the incredible paradox. Today, this experiment is usually performed with a split and then combined laser beam. The first laser experiment was carried out in a 600-meter-long tunnel under the Danube in Vienna.

Nowadays, the above revolution in the history of science is commented on as Einstein's logical, witty debate partner. Bohr, on the other hand, was the usual vague, unintelligible scientist with the wrong keywords - but he was still decisively right.

I myself am on Einstein's side, and I believe with him that logic should not be abandoned. The physical micro-world has now become intangible and incomprehensible, but in a deeper layer, we will one day find 'matter' and meaningful order again. The way forward is to accept and spread the paradoxes of Bohr's quantum physics temporarily. Domestic science should also declare that today's physics has finally left the level of pious materialism and declare that a fundamental change of approach has taken place in physics and in our so-called sense of reality. This implies that science will have to acknowledge the hitherto denied cluster of parallaxes, which will mean a temporary loss of prestige.

But scientific correctness requires the truth to be told, while to gloss it over is worse than simple pseudoscience itself.

Unfathomable quantum mechanics, uncertainty, and the elusiveness of the material world are only temporary symptoms. The shallowness of our knowledge keeps us in a state of uncertainty, even chaos. There will come a time when we will perceive multidimensional space, the permeability of matter, and the indeterminacy relation as a logical fit of simple phenomena, much as we can easily follow the behavior of air molecules swirling around our room with the help of statistical mechanics.

**15. Unified field theory UFT 1949 **
Nowadays, the disciplines of physics are fragmented and scattered: classical mechanics, electricity, magnetism, strong interaction, weak interaction, gravity, etc. It is like looking at continents fragmented by oceans: Europe, Africa, America, and Australia.

No wonder all the eminent scientists have tried to unite them. Einstein tried it, but at the end of two decades of hard work, his hopes were dashed.

His Monstre Lecture was given in front of the American and even the world's scientists, but it was a complete failure.

Einstein spent the last decades of his life in solitary work, shutting himself off from modern physics, rejecting it on principle. "If I were to choose a profession today, I would not go into physics, but into carpentry. His work still makes sense!"

So it was to be expected that his lecture would be poorly received by the razor-sharp brain young physicists who had long since given up on the idea.

They clamored and shouted. So it was the mathematicians who soon realized that the unknown mathematics Einstein used was a distorted version of the absolute calculus they had worked out earlier. Oppenheimer himself, the father of the atomic bomb, and the doyen of physics at the time remained disciplined. He had a famously calm temper, but he admitted afterward that he had been out of his depth at the time.

Einstein realized that he had failed to find his mermaid in the churning foam of the new mathematics. But with exemplary determination and diligence, he kept working until his death. Every month, he would choose an unsolved problem or paradox and analyze it with one or two of his students. Unfortunately, he never once found the key to the solution. Of course, he himself had lost that key in 1905, when he had abandoned physical reality for the relative theory of motion, a world of abstractions that logic could not unravel, and had banished the aether from the field of physics.

**16. 3+1 dimensional spacetime **
It is impossible for space to be 3-dimensional, although we humans see it as 3-dimensional and think of it as such. However, 3D, or three dimensions, is not enough for a sophisticated physical or cosmological theory. The minimum is 9D, below which it is hardly possible to go. But there are also 21, 32, 64, etc. dimensional theories of space

For historical reasons, Kaluza and Klein's 1926 theory of 4 or 5-dimensional space (not 4+1 D, but 4 or 5 D,) stands out. They tried to solve the internal problems of relativity.

Einstein himself tried a 3+1 dimensional theory of space, recklessly conflating the 3 dimensions of space with a completely different type of entity, time. But time is an infinitely important part of physics, it's in almost every formula. How should we then interpret the formula containing time if it also represents space? He was about to resolve the physical distortions predicted by relativity. For example, the changes in length and time that occur either simultaneously or instead of each other. It is unlikely that idea is viable.

Tom Tushey

Mechanical Engineer

Hobby Physicist

Relativity Expert